Each year, more than twenty five million animals are used for scientific research in the U.S. More than ninety percent of those are mice (Ericson para 1). The Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences argues that even sophisticated computers are unable to model interactions between molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organisms and the environment, as well as animals, making animal research necessary in many areas. Animal studies have been used in the past and shall continue to be used in the future for a number of applications in the field of orthopedics. Human testing cannot be done for any research unless adequate safety has been ensured. Any new implant material should match various safety standards in terms of biocompatibility, mechanical stability, lack of local and systemic toxicity (Saraf 6).
Opposers and supporters can agree that animal experimentation has been helpful in leading researchers to immense expanses in invaluable scientific discovery (Ericson para 9) Most medical breakthroughs of the twentieth century included animal testing in some manner (Saraf 6). Even though there are numerous guidelines and protocols that enforce the ethical treatment of laboratory animals, it is still a particularly controversial issue to animal rights activists and the general public (Ferdowsian 473).
Most mammals are useful for experimentation due to their similar responses to humans. They have similar brain functions, stimuli responses and cerebral cortexes (Ferdowsian 476). These animal studies bridge the gap between impossible and dangerous trials and safe human testing (Saraf 6).
Legally, new drugs must be vigorously tested for toxicology in animals and considered safe before examiners allow them to be tested by humans (Saraf 7). It would seem much more inhumane to test these new drugs out on humans rather than lab rats (Ericson para 13). For example, until 1938 with the passage of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, no pre-market testing was required; because of this, humans were critically injured and even killed by the use of cosmetics. Additionally, these tests can only occur if there is an equitable probability of a gain for the human population or for animals themselves (Saraf 7). Since the use of chimpanzees and lab mice for research increased in the 1980s, an ample amount of biomedical advances have been made (Ericson para 3). Animal research has made tests and research possible without putting humans at risk Ericson para 2).
It is true that animals are living breathing beings and therefore be treated with the utmost respect (Ericson para 13). There is just as much worry for animal’s safety as there is for human safety and treatment (Ferdowsian 473). Every country that tests animals has developed a strict set of guidelines regarding how animals can be treated and what can be tested on them. Groups such as the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science, or ICLAS, pride themselves on...