Chapter Four gives a developmental perspective of addiction. There are multiple developmental theories that are used to understand the stages of life and how addiction is perceived in each stage.
To begin, three developmental perspectives are discussed. Piaget’s developmental theory focused on cognition due to his biology training. This theory involved four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational. Ford and Lerner’s contribution to developmental theory was a systemic element. It focused on individual identities being influenced by interactions with other people. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory suggested that individual personalities were developed in stages. Freud’s five psychoanalytic stages are oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.
The rest of the chapter focuses on Erikson’s theory of the Stages of Psychosocial Development. This theory has eight stages that cover the entire lifespan. It also includes both social and biological components. In each stage there is an age appropriate task or goal that needs to be overcome. Although stages 1-3 are not covered in the chapter, Dr. Shumway explained them in class. Stage one is Trust vs. Mistrust. Stage two is Autonomy vs. Doubt and Shame. Stage three is Initiative vs. Guilt.
Stage four is Industry vs. Inferiority. This stage ranges from age six to twelve. The task is to develop a sense of competence and mastery of new skills, which is often developed when children begin school. If children are successful, they develop a sense of industry. However, if they are not up to par, a sense of inferiority develops. This stage is when risk factors of substance abuse become evident.
Stage five is Identity vs. Role Confusion. This stage involves adolescents aged 13-18. It is the time of the most dramatic change. The task is to create an individual identity that will be accepted be their peers. Experimentation is normal at this stage. Some reasons adolescents may use substances include feeling grown up, taking risks/rebel, fitting in, feeling good /relaxing, satisfying curiosity, and self medicate. However, adolescents who use have a greater risk for continued use/abuse, depression, and personality disorders.
Stage six is Intimacy vs. Isolation. This stage of young adulthood spans from age 19 to 40. During this stage the focus shifts to others and becoming relationship capable. The task is to be able to fully give oneself to another. If one fails at this, isolation is the result. In this case, substance use/abuse becomes more prevalent.
Stage seven is Generatively vs. Stagnation. This occurs from age 40 to 65. This stage is extremely other focused. The task is to guide and prepare future generations. If failure is experienced, stagnation occurs and indulgence in substances may begin.
Stage eight is Ego Integrity vs. Despair. This stage ranges from age 65 to death. The main focus of this stage is satisfaction with life. More specifically, the goal is to analyze if...