What is state security? It is thought to be the maintenance and stability of a state, but when it comes to a failing state, security becomes more than just that. Security begins to take on a whole new meaning. Added to maintenance and stability, security means the safety and welfare of the citizens of that particular state.1 Civil Society is the part of society that consists of organizations and institutions that help protect human rights such as freedom of speech. These organizations are called non-government organizations (NGOs). They fight to maintain peace and protect basic human rights for the people. Afghanistan and Nepal are perfect examples of states where the security sector has failed and the citizens have been stripped of their basic human rights. Most NGOs in Afghanistan and Nepal focus mainly on women and children, such as Action Contre La Faim in Nepal and YWC (Young Women for Change) in Kabul.2 Not all organizations focus on women and children. Examples are AMDA MINDS (AMDA Multisectoral and Integrated Development Services) in Nepal which promotes the health and the well-being of underprivileged people through their empowerment, and the AIHRC (Afghan Independent Human Rights Commision), which is located in Kabul and promotes human rights in Afghanistan.3 When citizens of a country have obtained their basic human rights, civilian society oversight is possible which is base for a strong security sector. Civilian society oversight is civilian control of military, budgets, and policies. Without the implementation of an organized central government to secure the rights and protect the public body in Afghanistan and Nepal, ensuring adequate civilian society oversight within the security sector is impossible.
In order for these basic human rights to be granted to the citizens, there has to be a strong central government and public body. The citizens are the ones who make up civilian oversight; they will be the ones who will make the major decisions. If there is conflict within the state and citizens are stripped of their rights and are not being properly taken care of then how is the state to move forward and become successful?
Two examples of the need for a strong government and public body in order to sustain peace and have an adequate civilian society oversight are Afghanistan and Nepal. The government that was established in Afghanistan in February of 1989 after the Soviet Union’s withdrawal only lasted three years before the Taliban overthrew the president and took control. After the Taliban took control entirely, there was no security sector, government or bases for a sustainable state, although it did seem like there was some security at first.4 After the Soviet Union, the citizens did not believe anyone could be any worse than they were, but unfortunately they were wrong. The Taliban took all civil liberties and freedoms away from the public, especially women, and the citizens had to abide by the strict...