Concept analysis is the breakdown of a problem into pieces to figure out ways to form a conclusion on how to correct, or improve, the problem. This response reviews a concept analysis that looked at problems with successful breastfeeding. In the Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing (JOGNN), Mulder (2006) identifies the four key elements of effective breastfeeding: “positioning, latch, sucking, and milk transfer” (p. 334) using the concept analysis by Walker and Avant. The method of analysis, steps of process, and results are applied to successful breastfeeding.
The eight steps in concept analysis, according to Walker & Avant (2005), are:
1. Select a concept.
2. Determine the aims or purposes of analysis.
3. Identify the uses of the concept possible.
4. Determine the defining attributes.
5. Identify model case.
6. Identify borderline, related, contrary, invented, and illegitimate cases.
7. Identify antecedents and consequences.
8. Define empirical referents (p. 65).
Mulder (2006) performed literature reviews to develop the defining attributes, model cases, antecedents and consequences, and empirical referents for effective breastfeeding. The eight steps for the concept analysis were fulfilled in the steps of the process.
Steps of Process
The literature reviews were collected from several accredited sources. “The CINAHL and Medline databases were searched for English articles using the keywords breastfeeding and effective, adequate, or successful” (Mulder, 2006, p. 333). The essential attributes were extracted, and defined, from the various literature reviews. Then the attributes were placed into three model cases. The cases consisted of a supporting, borderline, and a contrary case. The model cases portrayed a well rounded view of the concept. The results, from these cases, were unique ways to manage breastfeeding problems and incorporated the findings from various forms of research.
The antecedents and consequences illustrated the concept from different angles. Mulder (2006) looked at,”…infant state receptive to feeding, rooting, maternal breastfeeding knowledge, a comfortable and relaxed maternal state, functional breast anatomy and physiology, and functional infant physiology and oral anatomy” (p. 335). These issues help put the pieces of the concept together.
The final step was the collection of empirical referents. “Empirical referents are used to measure the concept” (Mulder, 2006, p. 336). These are the main components of the concept that were drawn from the literature reviews. “Numerous empirical referents for the attributes of positioning, latch, sucking, and milk transfer have been reported in the literature…” (Mulder, 2006, p. 337). These empirical referents were defined by accredited sources vouching for the results.
The summary of the study recognized all the various inputs that were included in the final concept analysis. It established that there were positives and negatives towards the current...