Economy And Gender Inequality In Iran

1118 words - 5 pages

Iran: Gender and Education, Politics, and Economy
Gender inequality is an issue that a large number of countries have faced, and many are still facing. Unequal treatment of the two genders can occur in settings such as: sexual, social, private, professional, educational, etc. Some countries, more than others, seem to be stuck in a vicious cycle as they strive to achieve gender equality. Iran is a country that has had its’ ups and downs in search for gender equality. This paper will discuss some of the issues the women in Iran have faced concerning education, political changes, and the economy.
According to Snapshots of a Movement, the first school in Iran for girls was established in ...view middle of the document...

Once the universities were reopened, women discovered that they had been banned in numerous fields of studies (Moghadam, 2013). It wasn’t until 1989 that the ban on several fields of study were lifted for women. As a result, of the ban being lifted, and the lifting of other political bans as well, an increase in women’s enrollment increased in the 1990’s and by 2001, 57% of students in universities in Iran were women (Moghadam, 2013).
Understanding the fluctuation of women’s right to education is complicated. There were many other factors that played into women’s education. Iran went through several different rulers, whether the ruler was a Shah or a President, their rule brought new policies and regulations. During the Pahlavi dynasty (1921-1979), the women’s movement flourished. In the 1920s and 1930s women’s NGOs and movements became very active in Iran’s capital city. From the 1920s to the 1960s the women’s NGOs focused on women’s equality in social and private matters such as having the right to marry and divorce, be employed, and be education on health (Dolatshahi, 2006). With more women receiving education and being employed, the structure of the home began to shift. Men had less control over their wives, family size began to shrink, and women were getting married at later ages (Mahdavi, ). “According to Shahidan, one of the many factors contributing to the Iranian Revolution was this gender crisis, as the clergy considered the new gender roles as a threat to Islam (Mahdavi, ). Under the Iranian Revolution, women were forced to veil, laws passed to give women rights to a divorce were repealed and men once again solely held that power, women were purged out of parliament and laid off of jobs of powerful positions, and the banning of contraceptives were in order to keep women at home “where they belonged. (Mahdavi, ).” Just the year before, in 1978, 22 women sat in parliament and 333 women served on local councils (Esfandiari, ). Women who held jobs were pushed in to traditionally female fields and employed mainly as teachers or nurses. In 1989 Rafsanjani became President after the Iraqi war. Under his rule women begun to experience more freedoms they once had. He reversed the ban of contraceptives and started a family planning program to limit the size of families....

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