The first recorded written history of breast cancer was recorded around 3000- 2500 BC when the Ancient Egyptians wrote about it in some of the first medical papers (Donegan 2002). In these papers, eight ailments are described, and one of them includes building tumors of the breast, which medical historians have taken to mean breast cancer. Since this first recorded case of cancer in Egypt, there have been recorded incidents of breast cancer in Ancient Rome and Greece, in the Middle Ages, through the Renaissance, and up to today (Donegan 2002). Jean Louis Petit conducted the first recorded modern removal of a breast tumor in 1774 (Donegan 2002). We offer this rich history of breast cancer to underscore the importance of breast cancer in modern society. With so many recorded cases to date, breast cancer will be on the conscious of society until we can fully understand the disease and treat all cases flawlessly
In the CDC’s National Report to the Nation on Cancer, breast cancer ranked the most common cancer in women, having an incidence of 122.3 per 100,000 individuals being diagnosed with breast cancer per year over 2005-2009; and 21.9 per 100,000 individuals dying from breast cancer in 2010 (Jemal et al 2012). With the epidemic of breast cancer in the United States, it is important to understand risks involved with just being a woman and how they affect incidence of breast cancer in otherwise healthy individuals. As it will be explained further in the paper, an increased risk of breast cancer can be attributed to increased levels of estrogens in the blood, and genetic predisposition to breast cancer. Increased levels of estrogens in the blood can be attributed from three different sources: endogenous estrogens, exogenous estrogens, and alterations of estrogen receptors (Hilakivi-Clarke et al 2002). Women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer can have one of many mutations on their genomes, but in this paper, we will focus on the mutations that occur on the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, .
In this paper we will explore how the interaction of estrogens and BRCA mutations affect the risk and incidence of breast cancer. By using the research of people in various fields exploring the causes of breast cancer, we will try to establish that due to the mutagenic effect of estrogens on DNA, an increased amount of exogenous and endogenous estrogens will increase the incidence of Breast Cancers in the Predisposed population of women with BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutations.
Estrogens are used in many human physiological pathways. They have been identified as primary driver of pubertal bone growth spurts in boys and girls (Cutler 1997). Estrogens have also been identified as the driving factor in many other physiological changes in puberty and menopause, including breast development and the maturation of the uterus, vagina, and ovaries (New York-Presbyterian 2008). While estrogens are required for proper growth in development in...