In our life, cars occupy much space. We use them many times to transport, to visit etc. The most important part for cars is engine. Engine is the main part of cars. There are many types of engine. It is generally used internal combustion engine for cars. This type engine works with gasoline, diesel and gas. People wonder that how they work, because when people look the engine, they think that it is complicated. It isn’t complicated. Some gasoline comes to piston space and is burned. The burning generates energy and gives a motion to pistons. This motion is circular motion and pistons convert it to linear motion.
It is short form of how engine works. For engineers, we need to know parts and systems of engine. Sparks, pistons, valves, spark system, burning time etc. are some parts and systems. Pistons convert circular motion to linear motion. Sparks helps to burn liquid fuel in the cylinders. Valves send liquid fuel to cylinders and after burning they send CO2 AND CO to outside. Next paragraphs they will be explained again and what is done on them will explained.
The working of engine is explained. The other important part for engine is their efficiency. Efficiency means ratio of power taken and power given. The efficiency of internal combustion engine is about 14 % - 26 % (U.S. Department of Energy). People can think that what happens to rest of power. 70 % - 72 % engine loses power (thermal, friction, pumping and combustion). 5 % - 6 % drive train loses. 5 % - 6 % parasitic loses. As can be seen, the efficiency of internal combustion engine is low, because of that most time people try to increase it. To increase efficiency of internal combustion engine has been an aim for people.
There are the some systems are used to increase efficiency. VVT-i, turbo intercooler, VTEC, CRDI twin spark, nitro etc. are the systems to increase efficiency. These systems are very important, because when efficiency increases 1 %, it means the big success is done.
As it is explained, the power which is lost looks high. To understand what happened, we need to look inside of engine. First paragraph how to engine works explained in a short way. Next paragraphs, systems and something will be explained in a complicated way.
When people hear turbo, they think that car moves fast. It is true. Car which has turbo moves fast, because the turbo or turbocharger is a system that increases the efficiency of car. The technic mean of a turbocharger, or turbo (colloquialism), from the Greek "τύρβη" ("turbulence") is a turbine driven forced induction device that makes an engine more efficient and produce more power for its size by forcing extra air into the combustion chamber. (Wikipedia). That is just mean of turbo. Important point is how it helps to increase efficiency. Internal combustion engine works with gasoline, diesel or gas. For efficiency, how much liquid fuel is burned is important. Engine gets power from it. Because of turbo system, engine gets more air to cylinders....