Electoral Systems Around Teh World Essay

1361 words - 6 pages

Within parliamentary elections, there are nine major electoral systems in use around the world, as categorized in the International IDEA Handbook of Electoral System Design. Among them, the System in which a proportion of the parliament (usually half) is elected from plurality majority districts while the remaining members are chosen from PR lists is called ‘mixed-member proportional representation’ (MMP). Under MMP the PR seats compensate for any disproportionality produced by the district seat result.
German federal election uses two-ballot mixed electoral systems, which is a typical MMP system. It includes a single-member district tier, where only the candidate who garners a plurality of the candidate votes wins, and a PR tier. The PR tier offers even small party lists a chance to gain representation in the Bundestag if they get more than 5 % of all party votes nationally. Party votes are aggregated on the national level and determine the party seat shares in parliament. Germany is, therefore, considered a compensatory mixed system because – through a seat linkage – the PR tier does compensate the disproportionality of the plurality tier. Germany have constituencies where about half of the members in parliament are selected by closed party lists to correct partisan imbalances resulting from the election of electorate candidates by plurality rules.
1. For the Pattern of Electoral Turnout
A number of empirical studies find that disproportionality reduces turnout and this finding is consistent with the assumption that an unequal translation of votes into seats diminishes some people’s sense of political efficacy leading them to abstain. Disproportionality may also influence participation in other ways. Disproportional outcomes may influence participation by shaping the strategies of parties and their candidates. Parties may campaign more actively when their chances of gaining representation improve.
Because plurality elections give all the spoils to the single candidate who receives the most votes, the potential decisiveness of a vote for a minor party or non-competitive candidate is largely minimized. On the other hand, in PR systems, where the proportion of votes gained by a party is more closely related to the share of seats that party receives, all votes could potentially be decisive in determining the number of seats a party gains in parliament. Past research has, therefore, assumed, that the disproportionality between seats and votes in plurality systems instills in voters a sense that their vote is wasted if not cast for a viable candidate. This lack of efficacy contributes to comparatively lower rates of participation in plurality systems than in PR systems. PR advocates often cite its potential for increasing citizen efficacy and engagement in politics as one of the fundamental benefits of PR over plurality or first past the post (FPP) systems. PR rules can be seen as more “fair” when compared to FPP systems because they reduce the...

Find Another Essay On Electoral Systems Around teh World

On Ripostes and the Far Right: Mainstream Party Strategies, Far Right Responses, and Electoral Success

2336 words - 10 pages In recent decades, democratic electoral institutions have seen tremendous changes in both their construction and operation in countries across the world. Both the birth of electoral systems in new democracies as well as the transformation of old democracies contribute to this broad trend. Among the many changes in democratic electoral institutions is a distinct growth in the number of niche and far right parties competing for office in any

Should Canada adopt Proportional Representation? Essay

947 words - 4 pages Should Canada Adopt Proportional Representation?The purpose of an election is to provide a routine mechanism for selecting the individuals who will occupy seats in representative institutions. They provide citizens with periodic opportunities to review the government's record, assess its mandate, and possibly replace it with an alternative. There is a great variety of electoral systems, and they can engender radically different government

‘Shakespeare’s Hamlet continues to engage audiences through it dramatic treatment of struggle and disllusionment’ In light of your cricial syudy,

862 words - 4 pages What is it that makes Hamlet everlasting? What is it that draws audeinces from around the world to read or to watch this over dramestic play written by William Shakespeare centureies ago. It is evident today that Hamlet still engages audiences around the world through its critical ideas and dramatic treatment of struggle and disllusionment. There are countless scenes, solioqueies and entire acts that show this statement is accurate in regards to

The Electoral College System

1413 words - 6 pages Most democracies in the world today have multiparty system. There are 3 or more political parties that gain the power and control the government. However, throughout the history United States have had a two-party system. Currently, these two parties are Democrats and Republicans. This two party system is a result of nation’s choosing its officials through popular vote. In America, Electoral College elects the President and the Vice President

Suffrage for the People: A Report on the Electoral College and possible alternatives

1795 words - 7 pages Suffrage For the People?When our nation was in it's infancy nearly 300 years ago, our founding fathers had a dream of a government that served the people. While they wanted to have this government's positions filled by popularly elected officials, our founders felt the American public did not know enough of politics to rest the decision solely on their shoulders. Recently The Electoral College has come under fire about whether the feudal system

Electoral Systems: The Single Non Transferable Vote

2001 words - 9 pages There are three types of electoral systems that are generally used around the world. Majority electoral systems, plurality electoral systems, and proportional representation. The party list system, a sub category of proportional representation has long been assessed and analyzed by a number of groups to identify whether it has the potential to be successful. In particular, since its introduction in the 1850’s the single non-transferable vote or

Electoral College vs Direct Popular Vote

2000 words - 8 pages The current process of electing the President of the United States through the Electoral College system should not be changed because the Electoral College system is superior in comparison to other comprehensive voting systems. Systems like direct popular vote or the national popular vote may work in democracies; however the United States is a federal republic. While allowing large metropolises and large states to be represented in a manner

Election Problems

1852 words - 7 pages Electoral College, although both of them agree that nothing should be done. There have been over 700 proposed amendments to revamp the Electoral College that have gone before Congress, most of them failed. The attitude of the supporters is to leave well enough alone. While many of us see that may be true in some aspects others aspects are in sever need of change. Our world and lives are changing dramatically each and everyday. Although we have a

Is Democracy Diminishing at its Moment of Triumph?

2963 words - 12 pages participation. Since New Zealand introduced text message registration, the number of enrolled eligible voters has substantially increased. And since five US states introduced Internet voting, there has been a dramatic increase in voter turnout. The introduction of election-day voter registration in numerous countries around the world, such as Canada, has also proved beneficial in ensuring its nations citizens have their say .2.The Issue of

The Electoral College

834 words - 3 pages credible third parties would definitely strengthen our democracy here in the United States. In our system today, third parties are considered spoilers who take some valuable votes away from the two major parties during elections. In the end they possess very little power over policies and different issues in our country. This would all change with proportional representation. In many other countries around the world, proportional representation is

Electoral College - What Is It, Different Types, Process, Examples (2000 Election)

1672 words - 7 pages electoral votes, and Bush had 246. Whoever won Florida would win the presidency. Both campaigns sent teams of lawyers to the state. Gore attorneys investigated reports of irregularities that raised questions about the fairness of the election. Many of the disputes revolved around secret, but legally critical, technical flaws in the voting process. In Palm Beach County, there was a confusing two-page "butterfly ballot" that had names down the left and

Similar Essays

A Comparison Of Health Systems Around The World

1798 words - 7 pages Health care systems are highly complex and require vast resources. Moreover, providing healthcare coverage to all citizens can be challenging for many countries. Different models and theories abound all over the world about how best to provide care and only the most developed countries have adequate resources to truly provide universal coverage to their citizens. Looking at various systems around the world and how they came into existence

Political Systems: Name Three Politcal Systems Around The World And Compare And Contrast Them. Give Examples(I.E. Countries)

2247 words - 9 pages case for semi-presidential systems such as that found in France, Senegal, Finland and numerous other countries around the world. In these countries a President may force the legislation of the parliamentary lower house and the National Assembly but not the upper house (Governing Systems and Executive-Legislative Relations, 2000). The President may also remove the Prime Minister from office in these systems (Governing Systems and Executive

The Electoral College Essay

733 words - 3 pages The electoral college is one of the most unique election systems in use in the world. Instead of using a popular election or a legislative body to elect the leader of the United States, a state have a group of people called electors who actually elect the President. Every state has a set number of electors. There are essentially three or four groups of electors, each chosen by their political party. How many electors is determined by the number

Representative Democracy Essay

927 words - 4 pages . Another gap in the existing literature is the failure to show an interconnection between electoral systems, minority representation and civic engagement. This research will attempt to bridge that existing gap by arguing that electoral systems, the political representation of minorities and civic engagement are interrelated, critical elements of modern democratic societies and that a study of one cannot be complete without an understanding or