European Intervention And The Rwandan Genocide

1476 words - 6 pages

Around the beginning of Rwandan independence, Kayibanda is elected as president of the Rwandan First Republic. The First Republic of Rwanda was established in 1962, when Rwanda and Burundi had gained independence from Belgian. Under Kayibanda’s rule, the First Republic implemented regulations and laws to discriminate against the Tutsis. Documents, such as the PARMEHUTU, attacks and massacres were occasionally targeted against the Tutsi population as a way to launch Bahutu superiority. The Education Bill of 1966 was geared toward the Catholic Church and the teaching and priest positions that mainly consisted of Tutsis. An Equilibrium policy was established to allow Tutsis and Hutus to coexist while still maintaining Hutu authority. “Allotment system was used to restrict the number of Tutsis entering secondary and higher education institutions (White 476).” Tutsis were also forced out or expelled because of ethnic ties to Tutsi culture. Tutsis were denied scholarships to the University of Rwanda and study abroad privileges. Few were permitted in the army and civil service as a mode to ease tension between the groups (Longman 171). “In the height of the absurdity, they fought treated the Tutsis, not the Belgians, as ‘feudal colonialists,’ and they fought, not for independence from the Belgians, but for emancipation from the Tutsi ‘foreigners from Ethiopia’(Berry 33).”
The Bahutu Manifesto and other publications by the upper class Hutu elite launched political independence movements that swept over the nation of Rwanda. After the establishment of the Bahutu Manifesto, attacks against the Tutsis led them into exile. More than half of the Tutsi population migrated the neighboring countries of Rwanda: Uganda, Burundi, Zaire and Tanzania. As a result, cross-border ‘guerilla’ attacks were directed to Hutu posts in Rwanda, creating groups of Tutsi refugees and rebels. The apartheid system and governmental policies were remained intact (White 475). General Juvenal Habyarimana, a former army chief of staff and Hutu extremist, self-proclaimed that he was Rwanda’s ‘savior’. In 1973, a military coup d’état was staged to overthrow President Kayibanda and his regime of negligent politicians leading to the creation of the Second Republic in 1975. Habyarimana put an end to Kayibanda’s policy of radical rebellion. Habyarimana preached the need to establish a good-neighboring policy and the need to reconstruct the nation with all natives of Rwanda using ethnic and regional equilibrium.
The National Revolutionary Movement for Development (MRND) is a new totalitarian party founded by Habyarimana. MRND “…was probably the tightest in the world non-Communist countries (White 476).” The MRND under the Second Republic extended its policies of segregation and contradicted Habyarimana’s original equilibrium ideology. Government approval was needed to change residence in order to keep tract of Tutsis in a given area. MRND formed ‘death squads’ and militias such as the...

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