Gender Inequalities Essay

1548 words - 6 pages

Gender inequalities are a large problem in terms of measuring economic production. The United Nations sees gender equality as an important goal, as four of the eight Millennium Development Goals for lowering poverty levels are directly related to women. While men and women both deal with discrimination and exclusion from the labor market, women are forced to contend with more barriers to full participation. There are several sources for these inequalities, including gaps in education, lack of resource access, the inability to access the labor market and structural inequalities (United Nations Industrial Development Organization, 2012).
How Household Production Can Be Measured
There exists a lack of recognition of women’s “reproductive” and other unpaid work, like homemaking and leisure activities. Women tend to spend a larger amount of time on these activities than men. When it comes to household activities, like housework, food preparation, grocery shopping and caring for household members, women spend nearly double the amount of time men do (American Time Use Survey, 2007). This non-market production has interested national accountants and economists for a while, but have not been included in the national income and product accounts (NIPAs). Early in the 1970s, Nordhaus and Tobin developed a set of extended accounts that took government and household capital services, nonmarket work and leisure into account when looking at gross national product (GNP). Taking these in account had a tremendous effect on GNP, as it was nearly doubled in 1965 (Bridgman, Dugan, Lal, Osborne, & Villones, 2012). In the 1980s, Jorgenson and Fraumeni developed the “lifetime incomes approach” to valuing investments in human capital, adding around $14 billion to GDP. Incorporating the value of household production raises the nominal GDP level by 39 percent in 1965 and 26 percent in 2010. This decline shows the decreasing amount of time households spend on home production, as in 1965, men and women spent nearly 27 hours in home production, whereas in 2010, they spent only 22 hours. This decrease is attributed to more women entering the labor force. Production in the home reduces measured income inequality. Households tend to utilize a similar amount of time in home production, but the production in lower income households has a larger impact on the income of low-income households than homes with higher incomes (Bridgman, Dugan, Lal, Osborne, & Villones, 2012). With equal measurements in economic production, the gap between genders can be reduced.
Educational Gap
Social norms and structural biases have a large impact of how educated women are in certain countries. Women tend to cluster in few fields, such as education and health. They are underrepresented in certain fields, like math, engineering and science. This can be attributed to “educational segregation” and negative stereotypes about women (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, 2009). In primary and...

Find Another Essay On Gender Inequalities

Gender Inequalities in the Workplace Essay

2205 words - 9 pages the inequalities of men and women within the workforce. It seems that women can become employed but then run into an invisible barrier when they try to move up the ladder of hierarchy within the organization (McGuire, 2000, p. 3).Employers should pay close attention to gender stereotyping which exists within a workplace. If they avoid doing so they may lose an opportunity to hire or promote a good employee. In order to avoid gender stereotyping

Gender Inequalities in Victorian England Essay

1232 words - 5 pages depicts the male agenda of the Victorian period. Gender inequalities formed the fabric of society during the Victorian Era, as reflected in Porphyria’s Lover. From 1837 to 1901, Victorian England was a civilization of male dominance and supremacy. Men were viewed as superior beings that were far more intellectually, physically and emotionally able than females. Women were bound by law to obey their husbands while being forced to adhere to

Class, Racial and Gender Inequalities in UK

1106 words - 4 pages Inequalities in UK PAGE 1 Running Head: CLASS, RACIAL AND GENDER INEQUALITIES IN UKClass, Racial and Gender Inequalities in United Kingdom[Name of the Writer][Name of the Institution]Class, Racial and Gender Inequalities in United KingdomThe gender gap in wages in numerous countries has been well researched in sociology and economics, but scholars have paid less attention to the gender gap in wealth. Using wages to indicate gender-based

Changing Perspective on Gender Inequalities in Schools

841 words - 3 pages Changing Perspective on Gender Inequalities in Schools Gender equality is a broad topic with many different angles that can be examined. For my part in this project I chose to research the changing perspective on gender inequalities in schools. I wanted to find out what people really felt about the fairness of their education, and whether they really felt they had been shortchanged in the learning process because of their sex. My

Gender inequalities

873 words - 3 pages Alexys HanesGr. 8 Mr. Bushnell08.15.2014Summer Reading QuestionsHow does the study of fiction and nonfiction texts help individuals construct their understanding of reality?The study of fiction and nonfiction texts help individuals construct their understanding of reality because, a fiction text can give a reader a sense of how the future could end up being. Almost like a futuristic reality, a lot of fiction books have spaceships instead of cars

Critically Assess Sociological Explanations for Inequalities in Health by Gender

1147 words - 5 pages Untitled Critically Assess Sociological Explanations for Inequalities in Health by Gender There are specific differences relating to gender in health, for example women live longer than men but spend more of their lives ill. Gender refers to the cultural classifications between men and women due to socialisation within our society, including behavioural differences and expectations. This is more than the separation of sex by male and

How philosophical, religious or cultural ideas legitimate the class and gender inequalities of classical civilization?

1211 words - 5 pages with the ideal that women were a representation of infertile men led to inequalities in gender and class. In conclusion, the classical civilization borrowed significantly from religion in developing cultural practices. As such, most Islamic and Christian regions often developed class and gender inequalities. In areas where religion had minimal influence, then culture was defined by philosophical ideals.   Works Cited Classical civilization

To What Extent Does Difference in Gender, Ethnicity and Class Influence Health Inequalities?

2801 words - 12 pages inequalities affect many aspects of everyday life. Though this division is sometimes just down to pure chance, there are structural factors which mean that those who face ill health often come from particular groups. Gender, ethnicity and class all have an influence on health inequalities. Those from lower social classes are more likely to be unhealthy, work and live in hazardous conditions are have more unhealthy lifestyles including poor diet and

Gender Inequalities: Yesterday and Today

2098 words - 8 pages surprise or shock. And we still say that gender inequality exists no more. No one raises a brow when a man wanders in night clubs, or gets drunk, or befriends strange women. It is normal. It is common. He is a man. But even in this day and age, a woman frequenting a night club and indulging in alcohol is deemed “immoral”…. “licentious.” We are in the twenty-first century; we call ourselves civilized, modern, liberal. We claim to believe in equality of

Gender Inequalities in the Roman Catholic Religion

608 words - 3 pages Gender equality has been debated throughout society, and in a more narrow sense, in the Roman Catholic Church. Men are the dominant gender when looking at the Roman Catholic religion, as they have the authority and power to hold a church session and women do not. Today, many women are fighting back and questioning the gender bias that is present within the Roman Catholic religion. Although women have come a long way in society, women seem to

Continuing in the Field of Ethnic Studies

1121 words - 4 pages power. I would want to focus on the different inequalities that the women in the Chicano population face due to gender roles. Furthermore, I would want to study the changes of gender roles among Mexican women when leaving their country and settling in the United States. I want to research what barriers that women who challenge gender roles face. For example I want to learn things such as how and why is it a challenge to gender roles when a Chicana

Similar Essays

Gender Inequalities In Malawi Essay

1591 words - 6 pages problem dealing with gender inequalities towards women, such as in the workplace, home, and in society as a whole. Malawi adopted her own Constitution is 1994, which established many laws for the country to abide by. (“Gender Equality”) Similar to the United States of America, Malawi set the standard that men and women were equal to one another and discrimination based on sex was illegal. However, several laws that have been set in place by

Inequalities On Gender Essay

1134 words - 5 pages In today's society, women and male gender roles reflect on more that only just what people think about sex roles. In this research, I will inform the reader about stereotypes that society accepts when dealing with gender roles. In addition, this paper will explain the reasons gender roles are labeled the way they are: feminine, masculine, dominant, submissive and sexual, which are portrayed by individuals in the mass media. The behavior of sex

Gender Inequalities, Past And Present Essay

1720 words - 7 pages In current society, social divisions feature a lot on the prospects of people within each society. This essay will explain how the in such concepts as women being forced into unpaid labour, male dominance over females in employment, the sexualisation of women in the media as well as briefly looking into inequalities within violence. Through discussing each of these concepts, we can compare the historical context of gender inequalities

Gender Inequalities In The Workplace Essay

2062 words - 8 pages Gender Inequalities in the workplace Ntombifuthi Kamanga METHODOLOGY 3 INTRODUCTION 4 CAUSES OF GENDER INEQUALITY 5 COMPARING GENDER INEQUALITY IN SOUTH AFRICA WITH OTHER COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD. 6 POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS 7 EFFECTS OF GENDER INEQUALITY 9 CONCLUSION 10 INTERVIEW ABOUT GENDER INEQUALITY 11   Methodology   Introduction Gender inequality is “the unfair treatment of an applicant or employee because of the person’s sex”. Gender