Gene Mapping Essay

660 words - 3 pages

Genetic engineering is a fast, more reliable method, that revolutionizes modern science. Some of the things that are included in Genetic Engineering is cloning. Cloning is the process in which an identical organism is produced from a specimen using the alleles and DNA of the specimen.
Cloning has naturally occurred in nature for over thousands of years. For instance, “bacteria produce genetically an identical offspring through a process called asexual reproduction” (genome.gov), which is the mode of reproduction involving just one parent. Humans have also been able to clone plants for thousands of years. But until a few years ago, cloning animals was the real challenge; since the 1800’s people began to question the possibility of cloning using methods like cell division. One of the first scientists involved in animal cloning was Hans Driesch. Driesch was trying to prove splitting a cell while keeping its genes and DNA intact. He took the embryos of a few sea urchins and he grew them independently creating identical offspring to the specimens. Later in 1902, Hans Sperman took a two-celled embryo of a salamander and put them in separate cells. By doing this, he conducted the first nuclear transfer experiment and later received the Nobel Prize in 1935 (Argos biotech). This was the start of the process of Cloning, and continues on into the present day.
Dolly was the first mammal to be cloned and ignited a great hype because the process of doing that is incredibly complicated. The process included taking differentiated cells and extracting and inserting DNA into the gamete and somatic cells of the animal, usually the egg. Differentiated cells are cells that have specific functions depending on where they are. The reason this procedure needs differentiated cells is because, in gamete cells, only half of the chromosomes are present. Without the presence of the needed chromosomes (for that specific species) it is impossible to create a clone. Therefore, the...

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