Gis Analysis In Flood Assessment And Modeling

2233 words - 9 pages

Floods are natural hazards that have shaped the landscape of our environment over thousands of years. Recently, the effect of floods has been intensified by the sustained population growth, changes in land use, and climate change with more intense rainfall patterns. The impact of these effects depends on the extent of the flood and temporal nature of their occurrence, as well as on the vulnerability and associated risk of the exposed communities and elements (infrastructure, ecosystems, etc). Most flood hazards result from insufficient drainage systems, breaching or topping of levees or dams, and intense rainfall events (Kulkarni, et al., 2014).
One of the most devastating effects of flood events is the loss of life, along with the damage to properties. Other effects include economic loss, disturbance of ecological resources, food shortages and starvation (Haq et al., 2012). The amount of warning time that is provided to the population at risk of flooding has been described as key factor to prevent the loss of lives (Graham, 1999). Therefore, adequate prediction capability is essential to mitigate flooding damages and establish flood-warning systems.
Floods have a complex spatial and temporal dynamic that motivates their study. The spatial dimension of floods ranges from the local to the regional scale, while the temporal dimension varies from slow floods (days) to flash floods (minutes). The spatial extent, variability and magnitude of floods has been addressed using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) (Crossetto et al., 2000), while the temporal dynamic has been tackled using hydrologic and hydraulic modeling (Correia, et al., 1998).
The coupling of GIS and flood modeling is a developing field. There are three approaches in the literature describing the role of GIS in flood modeling: The first approach is called Loose Coupling, which consists in using GIS for pre-processing and post-processing of model data inputs and outputs. A second approach called Tight Coupling allows model inputs and outputs be directly addressed by GIS through a common database; and a more challenging and modern approach is called Embedded Coupling, in which the model and GIS are completely integrated through programming (Jankowski, 1995, Al-Saban et al., 2003, De Roo et al., 2000).
The use of GIS in pre-processing has been widely acknowledged for specific applications such as watershed delineation, terrain processing, and cross section discretization, which allow obtaining a computer representation of the spatial and terrain characteristics of the study area for further computer modeling (Paiva, et al., 2011, Haq et al., 2012, Sarhadi et al., 2012). Post-processing applications include inundation maps that display the depth and spatial extent of the floods, assessment of population and infrastructure impacts, spatial-uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, among others (Crossetto et al., 2000). These applications of GIS can either be used for computer modeling, or...

Find Another Essay On GIS Analysis in Flood Assessment and Modeling

Flood Myth in the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Biblical Flood Myth of Genesis

2182 words - 9 pages The Flood in the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Flood of Genesis       The Biblical book, Genesis, of the Old Testament contains an account of an historic Flood which has never been equaled in intensity. Tablet 11of the Sumero-Babylonian version of the epic of Gilgamesh also records a Flood quite expansive and quite devastating. Are they a record of the same event?   E.A. Budge states in Babylonian Story of the Deluge and the Epic of

Needs Assessment and SWOT Analysis

1002 words - 5 pages ., para. 29). The needs assessment acts a guide for administrators to plan projects effectively. An effective needs assessment provides insight, information, is objective, and assists in identifying gaps in services, thereby making it an impetrative part of the planning process. The SWOT analysis assists in the needs assessment process by identifying gaps in services. Thereby allow administrators to fulfill that need though the needs assessment

Modeling Subject Recruitment in Medical and Clinical Investigations

916 words - 4 pages exponential waiting model, which is equivalent to Poisson counts over a specified time (Casella and Berger, 2002, p100). A clinical investigators’ previous experience in similar trials or knowledge in the area is incorporated into the analysis through the initial value of prior probability (P). If a researcher has a weak prior about accrual, for instance the trial is novel with few historical precedents to provide guidance; then the posterior

Teaching and Modeling Homosexual Tolerance in the Public School System

1838 words - 7 pages Teaching and Modeling Homosexual Tolerance in the Public School System I am an advocate of acceptance and tolerance as well as equality for homosexuals. I am going to try and explain to you the course we as a society needs to take. I want to share with you the history of the world in relation to gay relationships, genetics, statistics, and Christianity in order to familiarize you with the topic in hopes of helping you see things my way. I

Object And Process Modeling, And Stragies For System Analysis And Problem Solving

1094 words - 4 pages System Analysis and System Requirements Object Modeling, Process Modeling, and Strategies for System Analysis and Problem Solving April 6, 2005 Object Modeling A class can be described as a collection of objects of similar type. These objects often share the same attributes, operations, methods, relationships, and semantics. Additionally, once a class is defined any number of objects can be created and associated to that class. For

Impact of Building Information Modeling in LEED Rating Analysis of Newly Constructed Buildings

1694 words - 7 pages perform daylight analysis to increase the sustainability of the building. According to the previous research the use of BIM during the design phase to perform the energy analysis will result in an efficient design minimizing the energy consumption of the building resulting in a sustainable building. Problem Statement The proposed study will identify and assess the impact of Building Information Modeling for LEED® rating analysis of newly

A Comparison Of The Flood In The Netherlands In 1995 And The Flood Of Bangladesh In 1998: Going By Geography, Impact And Effect

1980 words - 8 pages report will go into the main similarities and differences between the geography of Bangladesh and the geography of The Netherlands, the similarities and differences between the impact of the floods in Bangladesh in 1998 and the flood in The Netherlands in 1995. The natural causes of the foods as well as the human causes of the floods in Bangladesh and The Netherlands. The flood defenses in Bangladesh and The Netherlands as well as the short-term

Flood Hazard and Emergency Response Route Scenario in Olympia, Washington, U.S

2007 words - 9 pages modeling the hazards themselves, but representing and displaying many potential responses to hazards. For example, if a county GIS team is assessing the potential for flood dangers in their area, creating a map of the 100, 500, and 1000 year flood lines overlaid on top of the human infrastructure will help key decision makers to take the necessary steps to educate the residents and plan for their evacuation if needed. Improving GPS capabilities

Security Risk Analysis and Assessment Report

1009 words - 5 pages . As part of Cybercom’s contract with the DoD, the company is required to conduct a formal security risk analysis of its internal network in order to identify security vulnerabilities and prevent network breaches. Overview Cybercom’s security risk assessment will be performed using the guidelines of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication 800-30, Guide for Conducting Risk Assessments. The risk management

Analytical Essay on the Flood Narratives in 'Gilgamesh' and the Bible

1476 words - 6 pages Flood narratives are present in both the Sumerian epic of Gilgamesh and in the Bible and although they are very similar, they are also very different. The Sumerian version of the flood story is related to a polytheistic, antropocentric and fatalistic worldview, while the Hebrew myth is based on a monotheistic, theocentric and ethically casual worldview.The big differences are evident already from the start of the stories. While in the Bible, God

Social Inequality in The Year of the Flood and The Cat’s Table

1462 words - 6 pages Imbalance between rich and poor creates an unjust world of social inequality. Society as a class system is based on hierarchy of power, privilege, and prestige. One could take advantage of these three elements and abuse them to be beneficial to the indivisual, but harmful to the rest of society. The Year of the Flood takes place in a post-apocalyptic world, harmed by corporate control, and violent slums. In comparison, The Cat’s Table takes

Similar Essays

Process Modeling In System Analysis And Design

1080 words - 4 pages the system is created in the most logical manner and will be able to be used for a long time. Works Cited Data modeling [PowerPoint slides]. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.classes.soe.ucsc.edu/Fism058/FWinter00/FCHAPTER5.ppt Mallikaarachchi, V. (n.d.). Data modeling for system analysis. Retrieved from http://www.umsl.edu/~sauterv/analysis/Fall2010Papers/varuni/ Rosenblatt, H. (2014). Systems analysis and design. (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Course Technology.

The Role Of Gis And Remote Sensing In Environmental Impact Assessment

2498 words - 10 pages QUESTION What is the role of GIS and Remote Sensing in 1. Environmental Impact Assessment 2. Substance Flow Analysis 3. Carbon Foot printing 4. Health Impact Assessment 5. Social Impact Assessment Introduction Geospatial techniques such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing play a pivotal role in Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and their various components such as ecological, social and hydrological impact

Modeling A Process Assessment Framework In Archi Mate

1653 words - 7 pages In order to evaluate the concept mappings from TIPA to ArchiMate, we will perform a BWW (Wand and Weber 1993) analysis according to two criteria: completeness and clarity. The Bunge-Wand-Weber Model provides an ontological evaluation of grammars method, where we compare two sets of concepts to identify four ontological deficiencies: 1. Incompleteness: can each element from the first set be mapped on an element from the second? – The mapping is

Modeling A Process Assessment Framework In Archi Mate

1395 words - 6 pages these domains and their relations, providing the architect with instruments that support and improve the architecture process (Lankhorst 2004). In a short time, ArchiMate has become the open standard for architecture modeling in the Netherlands; it is now also becoming well known in the international EA community, being today a TOG standard (Jonkers H., Proper E. 2009). The domains of business, application and infrastructure are connected by a