Heroin is illegal and highly addictive. (Dupont, 1997). It remains as the most common drug among drug, among all the opiates (Lalander, 2003). The opiate is made from morphine. Morphine occurs naturally in seed pops of various poppy plants. In most cases, it is sold as a brown or black sticky powder. Currently, purer forms of heroin are becoming more common in the streets today (Research Council of Norway, 2013).
Many heroin addicts usually inject or smoke it. On average, a heroin addict may inject three or four times in a day. The intravenous injection has been associated with the greatest intensity by heroin users. It is associated with an immense rapid onset of euphoria. When smoked or even puffed, peak effects are experienced after ten to fifteen minutes. Smoking or even puffing, does not produce a rush effect (Research Council of Norway, 2013)
The United States survey on drug abuse has identified that, 2.4 million People in the country, had used heroin at a point in their lives (Research Council of Norway, 2013). 130, 000 of them, reported that they had used the substance a month before the survey. The report estimates that, in the year 2012, there were around eighty one new users’ of heroin in the United States. A large proportion of the users, were smoking or snorting heroin (Research Council of Norway, 2013). Eighty seven percent of the users are under the age of twenty one years. The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) collects information about drug related emergencies. The organization has identified that, heroin emergencies are very common (Research Council of Norway, 2013). Heroin has been mentioned to be most prevalent in Baltimore, Los Angeles, Boston and San Francisco.
When a person takes heroin for a long time then stops abruptly, he/she experiences withdrawal symptoms (Dupont, 1997). Withdrawal varies with time and intensity. In most cases, withdrawal symptoms begin after six to twelve hours. After one to three days, the symptoms are at their peak and subside after five to seven days. Some heroin addicts may experience withdrawal symptoms lasting for weeks or even months. This is known as the post acute withdrawal syndrome (Lalander, 2003). Cravings are the most common symptoms of withdrawal. An addict feels a strong desire to take even more of the drug. Cravings are driven by the desire to reduce the symptoms of the withdrawal.
Withdrawal comes with mood changes. One may feel extremely depressed and highly irritable (Lalander, 2003). This is commonly referred to as a dysphoric mood. Heroin has been known to block the body pain path. When one experiences withdrawal symptoms, there is a rebound effect, where...