Ibuprofen: The Ideal Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drug?

1386 words - 6 pages

Ibuprofen is a medicine which has been available in the UK since 1969; it was discovered by scientists working for the Boots Company in the 1950s when looking for an alternative with fewer side effects than the commonly prescribed aspirin (The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2013). Ibuprofen belongs to a class of drugs known as Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and is available as a Prescription only Medicine (POM), over the counter as a Pharmacy (P) medicine and in retail outlets as a General Sales List Medicine (GSL) (Royal Pharmaceutical Society, 2013). NSAIDs reduce temperature (antipyretic), are painkillers (analgesic) and have anti-inflammatory properties (Joint Formulary Committee, 2013). Figure 1 shows the chemical structure of ibuprofen. There are now twenty-one different NSAIDs available on the market; the drugs differ in their dose, interactions and side effects. This essay will look into many aspects of Ibuprofen to determine if it is the ideal NSAID.
NSAIDs mode of action is to reduce the production of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are hormones which trigger pain and inflammation in the immediate damaged area. NSAIDs inhibit an enzyme, Cyclo-Oxygenase (COX), which is involved in the first stage of prostaglandin production. There are two variants of this enzyme; COX-1 is responsible for the normal every day production of prostaglandins whereas COX-2 is responsible for production of additional prostaglandins when the body is injured as a natural defensive response. Non-selective NSAIDs, such as Ibuprofen, inhibit both COX-1 and COX-2 whereas selective NSAIDs; Celecoxib and Etoricoxib, inhibit only COX-2 (Society for Endocrinology, 2013; Ogbru, 2009).
Ibuprofen is partially absorbed in the stomach and further absorbed in the small intestine. It is rapidly distributed throughout the body, binding 90-99% to blood plasma proteins (Bushra & Aslam, 2010). Peak plasma levels are reached between 1-2 hours. In pregnancy Ibuprofen is transferred across the placenta and traces can be found in breast milk. Ibuprofen can cause problems for a growing foetus in the first and second trimester (NHS Choices, 2012). Ibuprofen is quickly metabolised in the liver and excreted by the kidneys in the urine and in bile. The half-life of Ibuprofen is 2 hours; hence why Ibuprofen should be taken every 4-6 hours to keep a therapeutic level of the drug in the body (Rang, Dale, Ritter, Flower & Henderson, 2013; Deltapharm1, 2013).
Due to its analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory nature Ibuprofen is indicated for the treatment of headaches, dental pain, dysmenorrhoea, feverishness, colds, influenza, rheumatic or muscular pain, backache and neuralgia over the counter. As a P medicine it can be sold for non-serious arthritic conditions (Datapharm1, 2013). In addition, as a POM ibuprofen can be prescribed for the treatment of pain and inflammation in several conditions including rheumatic disease, osteoporosis, lower back pain, post-operational pain...

Find Another Essay On Ibuprofen: The ideal Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug?

The anti-abortion drug - RU486 - should be legalized in Australia

538 words - 2 pages I would like to share my opinions about the law of the anti-abortion drug - RU486. Although this drug is not illegal in Australia as such, it is forbidden. I would like this law to change; to make the drug freely available to pregnant woman. Women have the right to choose what they do to their body and what they put in it. More than a million women worldwide have used this medication safely. But many people think that killing something living is

The Use of Melittin As An Anti-cancer Drug

1615 words - 6 pages treat a variety of conditions. One condition that seems to be most popular in all the research is cancer. Cancer is a condition widely known as the rapid and uncontrolled division of cells. The venom of bees contains a peptide called Melittin (MEL), a major constituent of bee venom [1] that has potential to work as an anti-cancer drug. It is unknown what is the major pathway in which this peptide works; however, scientists are discovering multiple

Anti-Semitism and Lack of Concern Among Non-jews During the Holocaust

996 words - 4 pages Thesis Statement: Antisemitism is to blame for the lack of concern among non-Jews during the up rise of the Holocaust.      It is hard to grasp the number of lives lost during the Holocaust. How someone could have so much hatred towards one group of people. Or how so many people could set back and watch something like this take place without protest. To begin to understand how a tragedy like the Holocaust could have

No Cover

1036 words - 5 pages medicine used in the world today. Also these types of medicine has a lot to do with chemistry and how chemistry came into the development of this specific medicine Ibuprofen. Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for pain relief, fever reduction and for reducing swelling. There are many names for Ibuprofen such as Advil, Midol, and Motrin etc. Many people would use this drug if they had sore muscles probably from playing a

NSIAD

3685 words - 15 pages reducing prostaglandin levels at the site of inflammation, COX-1 inhibitors induce inflammation in the stomach as well as the small bowel. The COX-2 inhibitors, a large portion of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug market, provide a gastro-intestinally safer class of drugs. However, COX-2 inhibitors induce vasoconstriction via actions in renal and cardiovascular tissues. Since COX-2 inhibitors also have anticancer potential, it is worthwhile to

Alternative Treatments for RA

824 words - 4 pages reducing inflammation and improving joint function. Consult your doctor before taking bromelain supplements since it can interact with other drugs and supplements. Fish oil Fish oil is a great source of anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids and has been proven to be effective in easing rheumatoid arthritis. It is found to be effective same as with non-steroidal drugs like ibuprofen and naproxen. Omega-3 fatty acids including EPA and DHA helps

framework

1810 words - 8 pages caused by pain, joint damage or deformity and achieving disease remission (walker and Whittlesea, 2012). There are four main categories of drugs used in the management of Rheumatoid arthritis: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), glucocorticoids, Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biological therapies (Nice clinical guidance79, 2009; Walker and Whittlesea, 2012). Treatment: • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: such

Effectiveness of Steroidal Anit-Inflamatory Drugs in the Management of Bacterial Infections

1405 words - 6 pages diclofenac was found to be protective against necrotizing fasciitis in rabbits caused by Group A Streptococcus. However, Inflammation perhaps actually raises bacterial growth. Inflammation can cause fluid accumulation in the area of injury due to permeability increase and this leads to oedema, which may actually increase bacterial growth3. Also an interesting study showed aspirin which is a non steroidal anti inflammatory drug showed anti fungal activity

kelsey

930 words - 4 pages -steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs commonly used are ibuprofen and naproxen. These drugs help decrease swelling, pain, and fever. Hydroxycholoroquine is the most commonly used antimalarial drug. It helps treat symptoms such as fatigue, rashes, joint pain, mouth sores, and abnormal blood clotting. Corticosteroids and immune suppressants are used in people with more serious symptoms such as kidney inflammation, lung or heart damage, and central nervous

Protein Crystallography in the Pharmaceutical Chemistry Field

1007 words - 5 pages mixed ionic or salt complex. With regards to absolute structure determination and co-crystal chemistry, Alshahateet et. al4 researched the plausibility of creating an optically pure form of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) Ibuprofen in a co-crystal form for the exact reasons aforementioned. The co-crystal structure does not affect bioactivity but at the same time can alter physicochemical properties in vitro, a property very much

Breast Cancer

1820 words - 7 pages [2]. Tamoxifen is the drug regularly prescribed for the treatment of breast cancer. The anticancer property of Tamoxifen has been attributed to its anti estrogenic properties. The use of Tamoxifen is limited due to the acquired Tamoxifen resistance in many cancer patients [3]. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are drugs which have anti inflammatory action and also used for fever (anti pyretic) and pain reduction. Aspirin is the

Similar Essays

The Newberg Youth Anti Drug Campaign Essay

1048 words - 5 pages than the averages in the state (Oregon Healthy). At this time the Chehalem Valley Middle School, located in Newberg, Oregon has no formal anti-drug awareness program. Although other programs have failed, Newberg School District must implement an anti-drug campaign, which will expand on the “Above the Influence” campaign. Drug prevention programs that have failed in the past include “Just Say No” and “D.A.R.E.,” and Newberg School District would

The Newberg Anti Drug Youth Campaign Essay

946 words - 4 pages , 2.9% of 11th graders are using marijuana 20-39 times in 30 days, compared to only 1.8% average in the state (Oregon Healthy 54). At this time the Chehalem Valley Middle School, located in Newberg, Oregon has no formal anti-drug awareness program. The school utilizes a two-week program focusing on overall health wellness, eating healthy, and some effects of drug use. The program is usually in the spring. Although other programs failed, Newberg

The Anti Drug Abuse Act Of 1986

1311 words - 5 pages The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 [the Act] was enacted for several reasons. One of the provisions of the act was to introduce mandatory minimum sentences for individuals who are convicted of possessing a particular amount of crack cocaine and powder cocaine. Individuals convicted with possession of 5 grams of crack would receive a mandatory minimum of 5 years in prison. Individuals convicted with possession of 500 grams of powder cocaine would

The Applications Of Meloxicam: A Nonsteroidal Anti Flammatory Drug

1764 words - 8 pages the ductus arteriosus: A review. (Obstet Gynecol Surv 1989); 44: pg 541–543. Oedema – Last updated: 16 April 2014 – Retrieved on: 30 April 2014 from NHS: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Oedema/Pages/Introduction.aspx DrugM. Del Tacca, R. Colucci, M. Fornai, C. Blandizzi - Efficacy and Tolerability of Meloxicam, a COX-2 Preferential Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Disclosures - Clin Drug Invest. 2002;22(12) RxList International Drug Index