Inflammatory Bowel Disease
1. Describe the pathopysiology of the disease you have chosen – What is the spectrum of disease/pathology the disease? Is the disease characterized by inflammation, etc? Is it an infectious and/or chronic disease? If so what is the agent, its reservoir, mode of transmission etc.
Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic illness characterized by inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract (Wolf, CDC, Mayo clinic, health direct, NHS choices). Patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease usually face with severe chronic pain in their stomach, diarrhea, which may contain blood, loss of appetite, joint pains, skin problems, fever, fatigue, etc. Symptoms can appear for periods of time and can appear in different severity dependent on case to case (Wolf). Two main categories of inflammatory bowel disease are Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
Ulcerative colitis typically appears in the linings of the large intestine. It causes swelling and ulcers to form in affected regions. In extreme cases, this can cause a whole to appear in the tracks of the large intestines. In these cases, immediate emergency surgery is required. Less than half of the patients with ulcerative colitis typically require surgery at some point in their lives (CDC).
Unlike ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease is not limited to a region in the gastrointestinal tract, though it has been shown to be more dominant in the small intestines. Crohn’s disease causes swelling and scar tissues to thicken in affected regions. Crohn’s disease typically also appears in patches where certain regions are affected by Crohn’s disease and other regions are not. Like ulcerative colitis, in extreme cases Crohn’s disease can cause holes to appear in the affected region, which necessitates emergency surgery (Wolf). More than half of the patients suffering from Crohn’s disease typically require surgery at some point of their lives (CDC). However, patients typically with inflammatory bowel disease can control the symptoms of their disease with medication. Because of this, most patients with inflammatory bowel disease can live healthy lives (Wolf).
Causes of inflammatory bowel disease are indeterminate; however, most evidence supports to genetics and malfunction in the immune system to cause inflammatory bowel disease. This is because people who have a relative who have inflammatory bowel diseases or similar diseases affecting the abdominal area are more likely to develop the disease. Also, it has been shown that inflammations in inflammatory bowel disease are caused by the immune system misreading food for bacteria and other foreign substances, thus, attacking the cell as a response to this misinformation (Wolf, CDC).
2. What public health statistics are available on incidence rates/mortality rates for this disease? What is the prevalence of the disease?
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease has increased significantly over the last two decades with the Far...