Islamic Roots Of The Millet System

1753 words - 8 pages

Even though this might seem paradoxal to those most keen stereotypes of the contemporary popular image of Islam as hermetic and sectarian, the pattern of drawing people together while protecting the individuals’ freedom of beliefs is part of the anthropological DNA of the religion. Within its a context of emergence and expansion and with regard to the inner endless subdivisions of the Islamic faith, the principle of pluralism was naturally forged.
One of the best illustrations of its institutionalization can be found in the previously discussed Millet System established in the Ottoman Empire that doubtlessly contributed to making this regime “highly legitimate” for Muslims as well as for non-Muslim due to the “dual role of religion as an institution and a system of beliefs” . Indeed, the Muslim religious life and law encompassed within the same institutional framework didn’t hinder a state law to stand beside in this bureaucratically organized empire , opening the way for this “system of autonomous self-government under religious leader” of the millets (in arabic « millah », which can be found in the Qur’an as meaning “religion, nation, community, or rite” ).
Since “Islamic beliefs constitute the vocabulary of political action” , this part of the paper will focus on the Islamic roots of this pluralist and toleration-based system. The principle of toleration is clearly pronounced in the Qur’an. For example in Sûrat al-hujurât (The Dwellings, verse 49:3) we can read “O’ Mankind [...] made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another” which implies the need for a common respect. Indeed, despite the absence of literal term for the word “tolerance” in the Qu’ran, Hadith and ‘Fiqh, show that religious coercion (“‘ikrâh”) is whether “unfeasible or forbidden” as shows the following verse; “there shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion” (Surât ii: Verse 256). This is reinforced by the principle of “bara’a a’liyya” wanting that “Man exists in a natural state of freedom from moral [...] absolute moral obligations cannot come from social custom or the arbitrary will of other humans, including political rulers” . Even more originally, the principle of “Tawhid” (unity of the divinity), “validated the experiences of those adhering to other faiths” . Also, one should not forget how much those moral obligation and solidarity serve the “da’wa” (Islamic proselytism) .
Let’s first notice that the sacred and secular spheres are not object of a clear-cut division in the Islamic faith. They intermingle as they both share the same legal foundations (‘ulamâ’ usûl al-fiqh) which relies on the “Sunna”, collecting the normative value of the words (aqwâl) and acts (af’âl) of the Prophet, as basis for religious dictates . This corpus of legislation “Shariah”, legal Islamic law, as well as the Jurisprudence of the minorities (“Fiqh Al Aqalliyyât”) used in “al-majallah al-ahkām al-`adliyyah” (civil code of the ottomans in 1876) , both hold inter...

Find Another Essay On Islamic Roots of the Millet System

The Roots of Poverty Essay

2602 words - 11 pages and developed countries are in the northern hemisphere (disregarding Australia) and the poorer countries distributed in the southern hemisphere, below the equator. (See Appendix 2) This is not the first time such comparisons have been made. Immanuel Wallerstein developed the World-system theory (2) in the 1970s where he describes the world as being divided into three areas: → The core: the rich and developed countries of the north → The periphery

The Roots of Violence Essay

926 words - 4 pages The scientific study of violence in human says that everyone has, what scientists call, a “Seat of aggression” known as the limbic system. This area is located low in the central brain which is regulated by the brain’s frontal lobes. The two different areas communicate by sending chemical transmitters and hormones. One of them is called serotonin which heightens aggression in humans. Scientifically, humans have found that aggression in humans

The Roots of Bilingual Education

1256 words - 5 pages The Roots of Bilingual Education A historical perspective on bilingual education is written in the article "Bilingual Education Traces its U.S. Roots to the Colonial Era" in the magazine Education Week. The author begins by writing, "Bilingual education has been part of the immigrant experience in America since the Colonial periods, when native-language schooling was the rule rather than the exception" (21). When immigrant groups

Roots of the Rwandan Genocide

1945 words - 8 pages encouraging Hutus to target Tutsi civilians and the Hutu moderates. The genocide sparked a world response, and it required UN involvement. Because of this event, many people fell victim to violence and brutality at the hands of radicals and extremists. Roots of the Rwandan Genocide The Berlin Conference assigned Rwanda to Germany in 1884. Believing that the Tutsis migrated to Rwanda from Ethiopia, the Germans considered them to have more Caucasian

The Roots of Communist China

1808 words - 7 pages ChineseCommunist revolution, and the foreign policy of the regime to which ithas given rise, have several roots, each of which is embedded in thepast more deeply than one would tend to expect of a movement seeminglyso convulsive.The Chinese superiority complex institutionalized in theirtributary system was justified by any standards less advanced orefficient than those of the modern West. China developed an elaborateand effective political system

The Roots of Human Nature

690 words - 3 pages The Roots of Human Nature The roots of human nature are sunk deep into our history and experiences. When in our own lives we are to find the basis of our human nature, we must look to our early years, the formative years. Now take for example if we placed a newborn in the wild or in a high-class, well-mannered, wealthy family. The human nature of the newborn in the wild will be exactly that, wild and chaotic. While on the other hand the

The Roots of Christianity & Judaism

4655 words - 19 pages The Roots of Judaism and Christianity(i) Judaism:The Jews are a people who trace their descent from the biblical Israelites and who are united by the religion called Judaism. They are not a race; Jewish identity is a mixture of ethnic, national, and religious elements. An individual may become part of the Jewish people by conversion to Judaism; but a born Jew who rejects Judaism or adopts another religion does not entirely lose his Jewish

Roots of the Space Race

2593 words - 10 pages available method at that time that could carry nuclear weapons far enough to be effective. The need for a more efficient delivery system was paramount to national security, and it so happened that the Germans had devised the perfect method of delivery: the rocket. Both nations scrambled to retrieve the precious information, locked within the minds of the German researchers in order to secure themselves behind the infallible armor of nuclear weaponry

Islamic Financial System: The Sukuk or Islamic Bond

1127 words - 5 pages the future (Afshar, 2013). Furthermore, Islamic banking is known as a key contributor in the Islamic finance total assets in terms of its market share, which is of about 80.3% (Mubasher.info, 2013). Having to consider such progressive trend of the Islamic Finance and banking sectors in the global finance system, one mechanism or facet of Islamic financial system that strikes the most to be of great importance and is continuously embraced by the

Roots' Function in Life Support System of Plants

1022 words - 4 pages Roots' Function in Life Support System of Plants Roots are equal in importance to leaves as the life support system for plants. Roots are Carbon pumps that feed soil organisms and contribute to soil organic matter, Storage organs, Chemical factories that may change soil pH, poison competitors, they filter out toxins

The Roots of Evil by Ervin Staub

1179 words - 5 pages In his book The Roots of Evil: The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence, Ervin Staub argues, “Bystanders, people who witness but are not directly affected by the actions of perpetrators, help shape our society by their reactions…. Bystanders can exert powerful influences. They can define the meaning of events and move others toward empathy or indifference. The can promote values and norms of caring by their passivity of participation in

Similar Essays

The Evolution Of The Islamic Legal System

752 words - 4 pages EVOLUTION OF LEGAL SYSTEM ACROSS THE WORLD : ISLAMIC LEGAL SYSTEM The development of law was started before history was recorded with laws advanced one by one as question were setteled actually, the improvement of standards in the public area originated before both courts and the composed law for many years, standards and practice legitimate frame work alone requested human excercises the force of standard law is found in the way that it is

The Roots Of Tattoos Essay

783 words - 4 pages interpretations, Through my research I will analyze how the art of tattooing has changed over time, what risks are involved, and if people are judged based on their tattoos. The question that I will ultimately be answering is “Are tattoos considered taboo in todays society?” The Roots of Tattoos The art of tattooing has existed since the prehistoric times of our world. In 1991, a five thousand year old tattooed man ‘Otzi the ice man’ frozen body was

Roots Of The Holocaust Essay

3047 words - 12 pages Roots of the HolocaustIt is definitely a common opinion that the Holocaust was an extremely negative piece of history from multiple perspectives. However, although such a thought can easily be conceived, it is also important to know how this event was initiated in the first place. The Holocaust was not a result of a dictator coming to power by means of a coup over the government that was still in place, though it was largely the result of the

The Roots Of Happiness Essay

1551 words - 6 pages life. The revolutionary ideas for the stepping stones of happiness: moral pleasure, unified government, and equal social classes showed that the people of Europe were not happy. They wanted to adjust the way they lived and find the roots of happiness. Works Cited Beaumarchais, Caron De, and John Wood. The Marriage of Figaro. The Barber of Seville and The Marriage of Figaro. London: Penguin, 1964. 106-217. Print. Campanella