Leaders impact people's daily lives and futures. In good times and bad, there is always a need for strong leadership. According to Fesler (1960) leadership is a social process, it cannot exist without leader and followers. Leadership is results in followers’ behavior that is goal-directed in some sort of organized setting. In brief, leadership is a process by a person influences others toward the attainment of group or organizational goals. Like the words said by Keith (2003):” Leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extraordinary happen”.
The development of leadership studies has three phases: trait theory, behavior theory and contingency theory. According to Robbins& Judge (2011), the studies at late of 1960s are applied to the “great man” theory which state that the leads are born to lead, they are not like other people and they have some special trait. The researchers examined the physical, mental, and social characteristics of individuals, they are expected to find out what kinds of trait will means the people is the leader. However, Fry& Kriger (2009) indicated that leader trait research ignored followers’ needs and not gives explanations for the proposed relationship between individual characteristics and leadership; it is not consider the impact of situational factors that might moderate the relationship between leader traits and measures of leader effectiveness. As a result of these drawbacks, trait theory is not successful and generally abandoned.
While aware of the limitations of trait theory, the focus of leadership research shifted away to leader behaviors. The researchers begin to observe the relationship between behavior and leader effectiveness. The behavior leadership researches emphasize on effectiveness behavior, not concerned about who should be an effectiveness leader. The studies of Ohio and Michigan are most famous among these researches. Two factors, termed “consideration” and “initiating structure”, consistently appeared in Ohio studies.(Robbins& Judge 2011) They found that leader behavior could be described through these two factors. Consideration this the style refers to the degree to which a leader acts in a amiable and supportive manner towards his or her subordinates and whether the leader respect subordinates’ idea. Cathy Bush(2011) argued that the leader strong in consideration style might being friendly, they treating all group members equally. Some consideration leader will putting suggestion to give group members a direction, but they are avoid to force people follow them.
Initiating structure could defined as task-oriented leadership style, this is the degree to which a leader define his or her role, also structures the role of subordinates towards achieving the target of the organization. It focuses on give a clear definition of organization’s structure and let all the subordinates comply their task.(Miner 2005) This kind of leader is likely to...