Leadership is the art of influencing others to their maximum performance to accomplish any task, objective or project (Cohen, 1990: 9).
"Leadership is an influence process that enables managers to get their people to do willingly what must be done, do well what ought to be done" (Cribbin, 1981).
“Leaders are born not made”, this is the most common assumption used by people when they refer leaders. Leaders tend to have certain inborn quality such as intelligence, courage and humour which together makes a man leader (john Adair 1984). Sir Basil said “it is the job of leaders in industry as elsewhere to get the best, the very best out of everybody.” According to Useem, “Leadership is a matter of making difference. It entails changing an organization and making active among plausible alternatives, and depends on the development of others and mobilising them to get the job done.” Leadership can be a relationship through which one person motivates, encourage and influence the behaviour and actions of other people. Leadership is the central feature of organisational performance. The most commonly and widely used measures of finding the leaders effectiveness is the extent to which the leaders group have achieved the task or the required goal. In many cases it can be measured through profit, increase in sales; increase in market shares and by growth of the company (Garyyukl 1989). In 21st century the way of working in the organization is changing at rapid speed and leading change can be said as effective leadership. When the leadership is effective in the organisation it improves the performance of the employees.
Leaders have different style and approaches for every situation. There has been a deep research on approaches of leadership. Leadership approaches is one of the most important factors of effective leadership. The following are four leadership approaches:
1) Power -influence approach:
Power -influence approach attempts to explain the leadership effectiveness through the power possessed by the leader and how a leader exercises its power. Leaders influence their subordinate and employee through their power and influence them to achieve their goals
2) Behaviour approach:
This approach draws attention to the behaviour of leader in their working style. It emphasizes on how leaders behave on the job and behave with their employee.
3) Trait approach:
Personal attributes and qualities of the leaders is emphasized in trait approach. Leaders have special traits like motivation skill, communication skill and decision making power
4) Situational approach:
The situational approach concentrate on different people with different skill and quality emerged as a leader in different situation. The person who becomes the leader knows what best to do in the particular situation. Situational approach is best to know the leadership effectiveness through situation.
Styles of leadership:
Every leader has its own way of...