Living Hybrid Materials: Escherichia Coli Bacteria

1786 words - 7 pages

Existing in nature ever since mammals first had teeth and bones, and crabs first carried their shells around on their backs, living hybrid materials have a long history on planet Earth. New innovations in science and technology seek to purposefully mix living materials and nonliving materials, and create objects and substances that are both. In a recent study at MIT, scientists found E. coli to be useful in the production of a biofilm circuit board; moreover, hybrid materials will someday help humans in the areas of architecture, health, and electronics.
Hybrid materials can be found in almost every part of nature, ranging from the bones that hold the bodies of countless species of animals together to the shells that defend crabs and other crustaceans. The fusing together of inorganic materials, such as the minerals found in bones, and organic materials, such as the somatic cells that help in the assembly of the bones in the human body at an early age, is a phenomenon of nature that is only now starting to be replicated by scientists. Even though these scientists are doing a great job of making many materials that will benefit humankind, the sophistication of the hybrid materials that are found in nature is something that these scientists have, yet to crack the code to (Sanchez).
The study at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which took place around March 23, 2014, sought to combine the qualities of Escherichia Coli cells and nonliving materials. The study was led by Timothy Lu. The paper’s main author is Allen Chen, an MIT-Harvard MD-PhD student. The actual study was published in the March 23rd publication of Nature Materials (Trafton).
Nonliving materials that were used in the study are gold nanoparticles, which have the capacity to combine and form gold nanowires that conduct electricity. Other nonliving materials that were used in the study are quantum dots, which are nanocrystals that have quantum mechanical characteristics (Trafton).
The Escherichia Coli bacteria was used in the MIT study because of its ability to produce a biofilm, which is a mass of closely packed bacterial cells. The E. coli is dependent on having amyloid proteins called “curli fibers” (Trafton), which allow the bacteria to adhere to a surface. Each curli is built up out of CsgA, which is a protein subunit. Peptides alter the CsgA and are also used to capture the nonliving materials that float around in the E. coli environment (Pratt; Trafton).
In the first experiment at MIT, the scientists took away the E. coli cells’ ability to make CsgA and replaced it with a genetic circuit that allowed it to produce CsgA, but only when the signaling molecule N-Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) was present. This way the production of the curli fiber
was controlled by the scientists. Without AHL in the reach of the cells, the CsgA cannot be produced which means that the curli fibers and ultimately the biofilm cannot be produced. When AHL was placed into the environment...

Find Another Essay On Living Hybrid Materials: Escherichia Coli bacteria

Escherichia Coli Absorbancy of Green Florescent Protein through Heat Shock

1459 words - 6 pages not enough to cause a necessary mutation. Among other techniques, heat shock can be used to help the acceptance of the plasmid by the bacteria. The amount of Escherichia Coli (Dh5α) transformed with the Green Florescent Protein Plasmid (pGFPuv) is quite low with the current temperature. The heat shock temperature used could be optimized to create a better acceptance rate of the plasmid.There are many different strains of GFP. The original

Lab Experiment: The Effectiveness of Different Antibiotics on Bacteria

2788 words - 11 pages : micropipette with sterile tips, paper discs, Bunsen burner, disposable sterile Petri dishes, sterile forceps, marker pen, Laminar flow chamber, Materials: Dettol soap, antibiotic solutions (streptomycin, gentamycin, tetracycline, carbenicillin), sticker labels, 2% bacteria broth (Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli) and sterile molten nutrient agar, sterile distilled water Procedure: Preparation of nutrient agar plates in laminar flow chamber 1

E. coli Traceability and Eradication Act: Protecting Consumer Health

2292 words - 9 pages would be the more harmful E. coli” (Kenner). Trenkle concludes that corn fed cows get sick easily because it leads to the development of more harmful bacteria. Evolved E. coli O157:H7, which was a foodborne pathogen started to danger human health. In 1982, the first issue occurred because of E. coli on beef and some people had to suffer from bloody diarrhea (Tschida). Again, in 1993, three children living in Western Washington reported having

Escherichia coli Fact Sheet

1137 words - 5 pages not have to be hospitalized and can reach full recovery at home. The recommended treatment for this infection is to drink lots of liquids and to get plenty of rest. Antibiotics should not be used to treat the symptoms of this infection. Taxonomy of the Species Domain: Bacteria Kingdom: Bacteria Phylum: Proteobacteria Family: Enterobacteriaceae Class: Gamma Proteobacteria Genus: Escherichia Order: Escherichia Species: Escherichia coli (E

Bacteria Lab Report

1750 words - 7 pages , erythromycin does not necessarily kill the bacteria, but leaves them unable to replicate. The remaining bacteria are incapable of surviving and are destroyed by the immune system.The three different pathogens, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, and Staphylococcus aureus were exposed by Erythromycin and the effects were examined.Escherichia coli (E. coli), a prokaryote with one circular chromosome composed of monocistronic (single genes) and

Esherichia coli

1401 words - 6 pages plate and the plate is then examined for evidence of beta-hemolysis and for a zone of inhibition around a bacitracin disk that is placed on the blood agar plate. Some bacteria will not grow due to antibiotic susceptibility and where beta hemolysis occurs there will be a cleared area around the bacteria. The unknown bacterium 48 was determined to be Escherichia coli. As determined by the testing done on the bacteria, the bacterium is a gram

Human Pathogengs from Keha and Shinta Rivers

1049 words - 5 pages bacteria isolated from hospital waste water in Nigeria. However Emilie et al. (2009) reported Gm resistance in 5.8% of Escherichia coli isolated from a densely populated estuary, which is lower than identified in this study. In this study 86 (94.5%) isolates were resistant to at least one drug. Although the degrees of resistance of the bacteria were different the majority, 69 (75.8%) of these isolates were multi‒drug resistant and showed 3-9 different

Identifying Two Unknown Species of Bacteria

1353 words - 5 pages can not reduce sulfur, it can produce indole, it is motile, there is no urease present and there is no coagulase activity. By deduction and logical reasoning Unknown 10a was determined to be Escherichia coli. Unknown 10b is Staphylococcus epidermidis. According to Bergey’s Manual Staphylococcus bacteria are gram positive spherical cells that occur singly, in pairs or in irregular clusters. Unknown 10b was gram positive, spherical and

The Process of Inserting the GFP – containing Plasmid of pGLO into E. coli by Means of Heat Shock Transformation

1984 words - 8 pages Endopolygalacturonase Promoter to Direct Expression in Escherichia coli. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology. Vol. 39 Issue 7: 1023-1029 Grote, Mathias. 2008. Hybridizing Bacteria, crossing Methods, Cross-checking Arguments: The Transition from Episomes to Plasmids. History & Philosophy of the Life Sciences. Vol. 30 Issue ¾: 407-430 Miyazaki R, Roelof J. 2013 A New Large-DNA-Fragment Delivery System Based on Integrase Activity

Articles Review: Novelty Makes the Heart Grow Fonder and The Man Who Bottled Evolution

635 words - 3 pages to come up with significant results. He also ensures that some of the phenotypes are rare in the pool. In the second research article, “The Man Who Bottled Evolution”, Elizabeth Pennisi, focused on the evolution of some fossils. In the study, she conducted a laboratory experiment using bacteria to understand bacterial evolution. She mainly focused on the fitness of Escherichia coli bacteria during 50,000 generations. For her study, she used

Five Benefits of Microbes (Microorganisms)

793 words - 3 pages used vectors for this would be; Bacteria: Escherichia coli, Yeasts and Baculovirus). (Slide Share, 2012) Agriculture; Agriculture benefits for microorganisms would be soil microbes are essential for organic matters and the recycling of all the old plant materials. There is some important micro-organisms such as things like bacteria and fungi which provide are plant roots with the nutrients for the growth of things such as nitrogen and phosphorus

Similar Essays

E. Coli (Escherichia Coli) Essay

865 words - 3 pages specific markers found on its surface. It is not only a tongue twister, but an extremely dangerous type of bacteria.This particular type of E. coli is one of hundreds of strains of the bacterium E. coli. Most strains are perfectly harmless, living in the intestines of humans and animals. The presence of E. coli and other kinds of bacteria within our intestines is necessary in our intestines for us to develop and operate properly, and for us to remain

Investigating The Antibacterial Properties Of A Mouthwash

551 words - 2 pages antibacterial properties of this mouthwash treatingit like a disinfectant against three common bacteria which can be safely used in thelaboratory: Escherichia coli, Baccilus Megatherium, and Staphlococcus Albus.Disinfection is a procedure which destroys, inactivates or removes potentially harmfulmicrobes- without necessarily affecting other organisms present; it has generally little orno effect on bacterial endospores. Disinfection often refers

Prokaryotic Cells Essay

1905 words - 8 pages appearance. It was allowed to air dry. After that by using forceps slide "E" was fixed in burner flame by using heat fix method. Above procedure was repeated for slide "S". Only difference was instead of "Escherichia .coli" culture for Slide "S" a culture of "Staphylococcus aureus" bacteria was used. Slides "S" and "E" were handled by forceps. A solution of gram's crystal violet

Bacteria And Antibiotic Lab Write Up

1344 words - 5 pages and Serratia marcessans because Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli are Gram Positive strains of bacteria, and Pennicillin is more effective against Gram Positive strains. The antibiotic that inhibited the growth of Bacillus cereus the most was Chloramphenicol. (Also known as C30.) Chloramphenicol killed a thirty three millimeter diameter circle of Bacillus cereus, making it the most effective antibiotic against Bacillus cereus.Another Bacteria