All matter is made up of atoms. All atoms are made up of Protons, Neutrons and Electrons. Protons are positively charged particles and Neutrons are neutral particles that are positioned in the atoms’ nucleus, and are surrounded by Electrons which are negatively charged particles which surround the atom's nucleus. The protons and neutrons make up most of the mass of an atom while the electrons surround the nucleus in the spheres, they are placed in different orbitals , one can have 2, and next 4 and 6. An atoms overall has has a positive charge because there are more protons than electrons, and being neutral is having no charge.
An electric conductor is a object which allows electrons to freely flow between objects. It also allows the charge to spread across the entire range of the object so the charge is distributed by the electrons. When a charged conductor comes in contact with other objects(especially conductors) it can transfer its charge to the other ...view middle of the document...
Like the gold foils did in the electroscope lab.
Polarizing is the way in which we could separate the positive and negative charges of an object. The movement of electrons leads to one object with more positive charge and other negative charge. The polarization process always involves the use of a charged object to induce electron movement or electron rearrangement by the movement of electrons across the surface of the object (as is the case in conductors) or through the distortion of electron clouds (as is the case in insulators), the centers of positive and negative charges become separated from each other.
An object is made up of different types of atoms, and each atom has its own electron affinity, which is the ability of an atom to gain more electrons. So an abject which higher electron affinity would gain electrons. A way that electrons can be transferred is by friction, in which direct contact of two neutral objects (rubbing) causes movement of electrons. This way one of the object becomes positively charged, since it loses electrons and the other object becomes negatively charged(gains electrons), but the overall charge is the same so charges are conserved. Electrons can be transferred from one atom to another because the atom which gains the electrons can place it on its outermost orbitals. The atoms which donates electrons, also donates it from its outermost orbital.
Another way to transfer electrons between objects is by induction, the objects come in contact near each other but do not actually touch. The object which which has less electron affinity would would give electrons to the other object which would become positively charged. The charged object would provide its electrons to the non charged object.
Grounding is removing of excess charge by transferring electrons to ground by using a larger object.
There are different forces acting on matter : electrical, gravitational, and frictional. They gravitational force causes matter to have inertia and weight (protons,neutrons and electrons). The electrical force is the repulsion of electrons within the electron orbitals. When two matter are rubbed against each other they cause friction because one of the objects is trying to stop the other object from moving against it.