INTRODUCTION Worldwide, “Overweight/obesity is the major contributor to the burden of disease and disability” . Nowadays, over 1.5 billion and 500 million adults are suffering from overweight/obesity respectively. It leads to almost 3 million related death per year which is more than the number of deaths due to underweight . In Vietnam, overweight prevalence in adult is 15.3% in urban areas and 5.3% in rural areas if using Caucasian Body Mass Index (BMI) cut-off ; 32.5% and 13.8% respectively while using Asian BMI cut-off . Recent evidences showed that at the same age, sex and BMI, Asians have higher percentage of body fat and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease than Caucasians . That is why using Asian BMI cut-off is more recommended in order to reveal the real burden of overweight/obesity in Vietnam. The fact that every one out of three urban residence (32.5%) is overweight  while they account for approximately 30% Vietnamese population  made a considerable warning situation. In addition, the situation is more alarming while looking at the increasing trend of overweight/obesity through years.
During 10 years from 1992 to 2002, the overweight rate in Vietnam more or less tripled . From 2002 to 2005, the annual percentage point increase in overweight prevalence was 1.9 which is extremely higher than 0.25 of the United States and European countries . Last but not least, overweight/obesity increase the risk of getting several non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancer .
In Vietnam, mortality due to NCDs accounted to 63.3% of all death . OBJECTIVES This paper aims to assess and understand the most important determinants of overweight/obesity in Vietnam. The ultimate goal is to help the Ministry of Health (MOH) addressing those determinants in their strategy to fight against overweight/obesity. METHODS Search strategy This literature review used two main search engines PubMed and Google Scholar; and online databases of World Health Organization (WHO) and International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO). The keywords and Boolean used for searching were (“overweight” OR “obesity) AND “Vietnam” AND “risk factors”.
Besides, the author also used Vietnamese keywords ("thua can" OR "beo phi") AND "Vietnam" AND "nguy co" to reach more articles. All types of the literatures including research report, literature review, journal article, factsheet and thesis work were included. Usually, the limitation for time of publish was 10 years. Exceptions were made for book, textbook and literature review. Both English and Vietnamese literatures were used. This conceptual model was simplified from the Obesity System Map used in Foresight program - Tacking Obesities: Future Choices in the United Kingdom [13, 14]. Compare with the full system map , only the name of main clusters were shown in this simplified model.
The author added a group of determinants called...