"Outline Of Physics" Book I, Chapter 1, Including Section Review Questions.

1422 words - 6 pages

Chapter 1: The Science of Physics (Page 3 - 37)1-1 What is Physics?The Topics of Physics.-Physics is simply the study of the physical world.- Goal of physics is to use a small number of basic concepts, equations, and assumptions to describe the physical world.Physics is Everywhere:Areas within Physics (Name / Subjects / Examples)- Mechanics - Motion and its causes - Falling Objects, Friction, Weight, Spinning Objects- Thermodynamics - Heat and temperature - Melting and freezing processes, engines, refrigerators- Vibrations and Wave Phenomena - Specific types of repetitive motions - Springs, pendulums, sound- Optics - light - Mirrors, lenses, color, astronomy- Electromagnetism - electricity, magnetism, and light - Electrical charge, circuitry, permanent magnets, electromagnets- Relativity - Particles moving at any speed, including very high speeds - particle collisions, particle accelerators, nuclear energy- Quantum mechanics - behavior of submicroscopic particles - the atom and its partsThe Scientific Method.Scientific Method Steps:- Make observations and collect data that lead to a question.- Formulate and objectively test hypotheses by experiments.- Interpret results, and revise the hypothesis if necessary.- State conclusions in a form that can be evaluated by others.Physics uses models that describe only part of reality.- Physicists use models to explain the most fundamental features of various phenomena.- Usually impossible to describe all aspects of a phenomenon at the same time.- Break into different parts to determine which to analyze/disregard.- 1st step: Decide what to study (system)- System: A set of items or interactions considered a distinct physical entity for the purpose of study.- A single object and the items that immediately affect it are the focus of attention.- A model can be summarized with a diagram, computer simulation, or small-scale replica.Models can help build hypotheses.- A scientific hypothesis is a reasonable explanation for observations.- Galileo's "thought experiment" (1638)- Modeled the behavior of falling objects to develop hypothesis on how objects fell.- Hypothesized that all objects fall at the same rate in the absence of air resistance, regardless of size.Models help guide experimental design.- Any hypothesis must be tested in a controlled experiment.- Controlled Experiment: Experiment involving manipulation of a single variable or factor.- Must change one variable at a time to determine what influences the phenomenon you are observing.The best physics hypotheses can make predictions in new situations.- When a different result is found, scientists repeat the experiment until certain of no error in results.- If unexpected results occur, the hypothesis must be abandoned or revised.- A conclusion is only valid only if others can verify it.Section Review:1) Name the areas of physics.2) Identify the area of physics that is most relevant to each of the following situations. Explain your reasoning.a) A high school...

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