Participation in urban planning of China
With the development of society and economic, public participation has been a popular topic which attracted people from different fields. On the basic of various theories of urban planning, a great amount of market economy countries have successively established public participation system in the field of urban planning. These successful experiences provide a good guide for China urban planning to use for reference, the changes in Chinese politics, economic system and social culture also provide an opportunity to do a new change on urban planning system of China. This article mainly introduces three planning theories which represent different degrees of participation in urban planning, and then an analysis of these three theories in connection to the status of urban planning of China will be provided. At the end of this article, I will give out several improvements in relation to the issues in urban planning of China.
Rational-comprehensive planning theory
Auguste Comte has offered rational-comprehensive planning theory in 18th century, who first put forward the concept of the theory. He believes that people could realize a superior state of civilization with the help of science of technology and sociology，which is still the mainstream urban planning thought by now (Mäntysalo, 2005). The core thought of the theory of rational-comprehensive planning is the combination of the approaches of classical science with the studies of society and social phenomena. Comte stated that planners should be the neutral observers who should seek for the truth of knowledge (Mäntysalo, 2005). In another way, it is necessary for planners to keep comprehensive when they are planning in the theory of rational-comprehensive planning, especially in the process of analysing planning problems. The theorists of rational-comprehensive planning thought that through encyclopedic, long-term, comprehensive analyses of development of cities, could put out long-term master plan with high accuracy. According to Friedmann (1987), the goal of rational-comprehensive planning is to protect “public interest”. That is to say, rational-comprehensive planning is the approach to find solutions of common benefit through scientific analysis, which means there is no need to bring participation in. Theorists paid more attention on the experts and technology which are considered the main elements to solve social problems and improve the society to a higher level of civilization. On the contrary, public participation was considered an interference factor in the process of planning analysis, because individuals might influence the objectivity of planning analysis because of individual motivations, which then lead to damage to public interest. Theorists put planners on the position of elite, thought planners are the professionals who are qualified to define the ends and means of planning with the aid of scientific methods (Banfield...