Pathogenic Organisms Research Report: Malaria.

1293 words - 5 pages

INTRODUCTION:The Australian biology dictionary defines a disease as " any change that impairs the function of an individual in some way; that is, it harms the individual due to infection, injury or incorrect body metabolism." These diseases effect and impair the quality of life. This SAC will include detailed research into the causes, similarities, methods of transportation between hosts, and relations between host and pathogen of the chosen disease. This report on pathogenic organisms will target the disease Malaria, Pathogen/Parasite type Protozoan.Malaria is cause by the protozoan parasites Plasmodium. There are 4 species of Plasmodium that produce malaria.-Plasmodium falciparum-Plasmodium vivax-Plasmodium ovale-Plasmodium malariaDifferences between the 4 strains is shown below**Plasmodium falciparum is the most fatal, and untreated it can lead to cerebral malaria, a fatal disease affecting the brain.The symptoms of malaria include-Cold stage: Fever, Shaking, Chills.-Hot stage: High fever, Headache, Nausea, Vomiting, Dizziness, Pain, Delirium.-Sweating stage: Sweating, Fall in temperature, Prostration.-Anemia: Pallor, Tiredness, Fatigue, Shortness of breath.-Splenomegaly (Swollen Spleen)-Hepatomegaly (Enlarged Liver)The condition Malaria is a disease caused by the presence of the sporozoan Plasmodium in human or other vertebrate red blood cell. There are usually transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus Anopheles (only females) that previously sucked the blood from a person with the malaria infection. Human infection then begins with the exoerythrocytic cycle in liver parenchyma cells (thin walled cells that make up the "packing tissue" for human organs), followed by a series of erythrocytic(red blood cell) schizogenous (asexual reproductive) cycles repeated at regular intervals; production of gametocytes in other red cells provides future gametes for another mosquito infection; characterized by episodic severe chills and high fever, prostration and occasionally fatal termination.The complexity of the life cycle, shared between the intermediate host, a human or higher primate, and the vector, an Anopheles mosquito begins with the plasmodial forms of the virus found in the salivary glands of an infected anopheline mosquito, called sporozoites. A bite from an infected female Anopheles inoculates the sporozoites to the host. The sporozoites then follow the blood stream, migrate to the liver and invade the hepatocytes (bile secreting cells). During this intrahepatic, exo-erythrocytic or pre-erythrocytic stage, the sporozoite evolves into a trophozoite, which then matures into a fully developed schizont (a multinuclear form of Plasmodium), which by asexual reproduction (binary fission in this case) produce merozoites. These merozoites are released from the liver cells into the blood stream, and bind on the surface of the erythrocytes.Working within the red blood cells the merozoites, after rapid asexual...

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