Post First World War Revolutions In Germany And The Former Habsburg Empire

2132 words - 9 pages

The causes for revolutions in both Germany and the former Habsburg lands bear similarities at the core, yet an array of differences set them apart. In both cases revolutions would not have taken place during the years of 1918-1923, if not for the First World War. Mass discontent on the home front served as an overarching instigator; nevertheless, the similarities stop at the First World War being the primary catalyst for home front discontent and the differences begin with the specific reasons for discontent. In Germany, food and resource shortages ravaged the home front causing major loss of support for the war by the winter of 1916-1917, leading to the formulation of the “stab in the back” myth once Germany was defeated; in addition, mutineers, Bolshevized soldiers, and those soldiers that found it impossible to make the transition back into civilian life comprised the core of revolutionaries and counterrevolutionaries. In the former Habsburg lands, the Empire’s formation of a police state in order to suppress ethnic groups, which were perceived to be traitorous elements, led to discontent on the home front, and this discontent only grew later in the war as mass unrest encompassed the working class as well as the peasantry; hard ethnic and political lines formed out of this discontent and were strengthened by a multitude of conflicts over newly formed national borders. However, Germany was able to avoid widespread revolution due to the parliamentary political system, which by the end of the First World War had become ingrained in German society; whereas, no such system had existed in the Habsburg Empire, and along with the dissipation of the Empire, after the war, inhibited the ability to finding a political solution, even if such a solution could somehow transcend widespread ethnic and political discontent.
The German home front took a turn for the worst in the winter of 1916-1917 as the Western Front had stalemated and the war in the East was still underway. Resources were stretched well beyond their maximums causing the German civilians to suffer, as Roger Chickering explains, “Home heating, like industrial production, was dependent on coal, for most Germans heated their homes with coal-burning stoves. Even accounting for shipments from Belgium, coal production was 10 percent less in 1917 than it had been before the war.” In addition to not being able to sufficiently heat their homes, Chickering also makes clear that, “Owing to the blockade, the demands of the army, and the mounting exhaustion of German agriculture, supplies of cotton, wool, and other raw materials of textiles also dwindled.” Thus, further inhibiting the German civilians’ ability to stay warm. In addition, a potato famine that nearly destroyed the 1916 harvest of the staple crop caused the caloric value of daily rations for Germans to drop below 1000 calories per day by February of 1917, recovering to just more than 1500 calories per day by war’s end, well short of...

Find Another Essay On Post First World War Revolutions in Germany and the Former Habsburg Empire

The Somme: Heroism and Horror in the First World War

3115 words - 12 pages in the First World War. In his book he attempts to pay tribute to the soldiers who fought and fell in the battle. To do this he uses excerpts from diary entries, letters and poetry written by the soldiers on the front lines to give the reader a first-hand account of what the soldiers were thinking and feeling while fighting. Gilbert is able to effectively portray the horror of the Somme and reduce the anonymity of the fallen by sharing stories

The First World War and Women's Suffrage in Britain

1733 words - 7 pages what extent did the First World War lead to the accomplishment of the women’s suffrage movement of Britain in 1928? Two of the sources used in the essay, The Women’s Suffrage: a short history of a great Movement by Millicent Garrett Fawcett, and The cause: a short history of the women's movement in Great Britain By Ray Strachey, are evaluated for their origin, purpose, value and limitations. This investigation will consider the role of women

USA's Involvement in The First World War

722 words - 3 pages USA's Involvement in The First World War There were two main events that led to the USA entering the First World War. They are: · The German decision to wage war on any form of shipping near Britain and the mistake of attacking American vessels with American civilians on board. · The 'Zimmermann Telegram'. The Germans declared the sea around Britain a 'War Zone' and made the excuse that anything within

Siam in the First World War

1185 words - 5 pages Pitakspriwan, Thitima. “First World War, the Role of Thailand”, Encyclopedia of King Vajiravudh, Vol. 2, Bangkok: The Committee for the celebration of his majesty’s 8th cycle and 100th anniversary. p. 690 IOR/L/PS/11/96 paper 3361 1915 WO 106/62 SEW 21 May, 16 1917 Vella, p. 83 NA 41/6, King to Phraya Phipat, June 13, 1911. In Vella, Walter F., Chaiyo! King Vajiravudh and the Development of Thai Nationalism, p. 83 FO 422/69 no. 20 Feb

Was the fall of the Habsburg Empire Inevitable

914 words - 4 pages position that in fact it was merely World War one which managed to destroy Austria-Hungary.One of the first of many convincing points put forth by Remak addresses the complexity of the Austro-Hungarian system. Fundamentally a paradox, the government of the Habsburg Empire was one built on a series of conflicts and compromises. With an officially liberal constitution, Austria-Hungary instituted a clerical system of government. Aside from the

Medicine in the First World War

1314 words - 6 pages World War One, in its own time, was the most destructive war Earth itself had ever seen, and this was due to the new technology. “There are two groups of people in warfare – those organized to inflict and those organized to repair wounds – and there is little doubt but that in all wars, and in this one in particular, the former have been better prepared for their jobs.” There were many advancements, disadvantages, and foundations involving

siam in the first world war

750 words - 3 pages seeing this the king vajiravudh have to re-evaluated the situation, on 28 May 1917 about two months prior Siamese declared war with Germany and Austro-Hungary, the King Vajiravudh stated to his council of ministers the realities of Siam's position regarding to neutrality policy its maintain so far. He analysed the fact that as Siam situated in between two colonial powers on all side "Siam could never dare to show the slightest partiality towards

America and The First World War

498 words - 2 pages The First World War was a conflict between the triple entente which included, the United Kingdom, the Russian empire, and France, and the triple alliance which included Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Germany. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary by a Serbian nationalist sparked the conflict, because both countries had alliances with other nations, the war grew and spread over the world. The United States

The First World War

7479 words - 30 pages world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of

The First World War

1294 words - 5 pages The First World War The First World War began as a spark and exploded into a merciless blood bath of money, power, and land. The little spark began in the mountainous Balkans of southeastern Europe where small state-sized nations argued back and forth. For hundreds of years many of these small nations were held under the gripping powers of Turkey, Russia, and Austria-Hungary. It started in the capital of Bosnia, Sarajevo. Bosnia was also

European Diplomacy and The First World War

944 words - 4 pages European diplomacy and the First World War 1870-192311. To what extent were the policies of Germany responsible for the outbreak of war in 1914?German policies: In the longer term, Wilhelm II's policies of Weltpolitik, his colonial ambition,caused tensions with both Britain and France (Boer War, Morocco, etc). Naval expansion led tomore tensions with Britain, contributing to the signing of the Entente Cordiale. Wilhelm's failureto renew the

Similar Essays

Why Germany Lost The First World War

698 words - 3 pages The First World War was one of the most horrifying the world has ever seen. Lasting between 1914 and 1918 the impact is such that many of the repercussions can still be seen as late on as today. The allied nations defeated Germany after 4 years of war and thousands of deaths, this essay will help to explain some of the reasons why this was the case.There were numerous reasons behind why Germany eventually lost the war. Probably the most

Germany Post World War Ii Essay

1189 words - 5 pages Michaela McLeay World History Germany Post War April. 21, 2014 World War II caused many problems for Germany. Since the war, Germany has had to rebuild and clean up many towns. Germany did many tasks after the war to help with the war effort. Many citizens loved ones died causing many grievances within the country. The people of Germany all want to reconstruct there country because it is in ruins. In order for the country to become better

Adenauer And Post War Germany Essay

1518 words - 7 pages Adenauer and Post-War Germany Introduction The downfall of Germany after the Second World War is an outcome thought by many that time as deserving for a nation touted to have caused one of the most atrocious events in human history. The Nazi Party, which ran Germany under its terrible regime before and during the Second World War, has perpetrated a series of destructive actions that soon wrought havoc to the rest of the world. From the anti

The Impact Of The First World War On Britain And Germany

2201 words - 9 pages reward for their effort was that women would be given the right to vote after the war. This happened in 1928 when all women over twenty one were allowed to vote.Similarly most Germans experienced total war and the physical side of it. Even though the allies prevailed over the Central Powers such as Germany and Austria-Hungary Germans suffered great hardships. The main difference between the British and German Empires after the First World War was