The ASCA National Model and the Texas Model both emphasize the importance of program balance when developing and implementing a comprehensive, developmental school counseling program (ASCA, 2012; Texas Counseling Association, 2004). Program balance is important as a counselor should spend 80 percent of his/her day working with and for students either in a direct or indirect capacity. A written program can assist counselors in tracking their time and provide data when setting district counseling goals and objectives (ASCA, 2012).
ASCA National Model
The ASCA National Model breaks down delivery through two types of student services: direct and indirect. According to the ASCA National Model (2012), “Direct student services are in-person interactions between school counselors and students” (p. 83). Direct services are delivered through three elements: school counseling core curriculum (instructions and group activities); individual student planning (appraisal and advisement); and responsive services (counseling and crisis response) (ASCA, 2012).
Indirect services are provided on behalf of students as a result of the school counselor’s collaborations with others (ASCA, 2012, p. 83). By way of indirect services, counselors provide leadership and advocacy which lead to and enhance student achievement. Indirect services are delivered through strategies such as referrals, consultation, and collaboration (ASCA, 2012). Through direct and indirect services, counselors make an impact on students and the development of academics, career, and personal/social issues (ASCA, 2012).
The Texas Model
The Texas Comprehensive, Developmental Guidance and Counseling Program Model provides four components: guidance curriculum, responsive services, individual planning, and system support. Within each component the purpose, areas addressed, and counselor responsibilities are listed. Program balance is established to guide the allocation of resources to each component (Texas Counseling Association, 2004).
Component one of the Texas Model is guidance curriculum. This component is to help all students develop basic life skills. A scope and sequence is implemented for student competency development. Guidance instruction begins in the early years and expands each year until graduation. The curriculum may be taught solely by the counselor or in collaboration with classroom teachers (Texas Counseling Association, 2004).
The second component of the Texas Model is responsive services. Responsive services meet the immediate needs of students. Topics have been identified at the state level as having high priority and/or relevance within the school setting and have been outlined in this section of the Texas Model. School districts have also identified recurrent topics including school-based issues and personal issues; these, too, are outlined under areas addressed in the responsive services component of the Texas Model. Additionally, the Texas...