King, The Science of Psychology, 3e 1 Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
CHAPTER FIVE: STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS
LO 5.1: Discuss the nature of consciousness.
LO 5.2: Explain the nature of sleep and dreams.
LO 5.3: Evaluate the uses and types of psychoactive drugs.
LO 5.4: Describe hypnosis.
LO 5.5: Discuss the role of the conscious mind in constructing a happy and healthy life.
I. Chapter Outline
Experiencing Psychology: Erik Ramsey-When the mind is a buried treasure
The chapter begins with a discussion of a man who was injured in a car accident, leaving him with a rare condition called locked-in syndrome.
Erik's only ability was to control the muscles of his eyes, allowing him to communicate. However, he still had his mind!
A team of doctors, scientists, and engineers are working together to develop the technology that had allowed Eric to think the sounds he cannot make with his voice
and do so in a way that a computer will recognize and translate into speech. By 2010,
Eric was able to produce three vowel sounds.
I. The Nature of Consciousness
William James described the mind as a stream of consciousness, a continued flow of ever changing sensations, images, thoughts, and feelings.
James also described aspects of our awareness that are on the "fringe" of the stream of consciousness, referring to the feelings and thoughts that we have about our
Metacognition refers to thinking about thinking. The awareness of thinking about something can have survival benefits.
A. Defining Consciousness
1. Consciousness can be defined in two parts: 1) an individual's level of awareness to external events and internal sensations and 2) arousal.
2. Arousal refers to the physiological state of being engaged with the environment.
B. Consciousness and the Brain
King, The Science of Psychology, 3e 2 Copyright © 2014 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
1. Neuroscientists do not believe there is a specific place in the brain for consciousness. They believe there are separate processing systems that connect to
2. Awareness is a subjective state of being conscious and occurs in a global brain workspace involving a variety of brain areas working in parallel.
3. Areas of the prefrontal cortex are involved in complex sensations and awareness events
4. Arousal is determined by the reticular activating system, a network of structures including the brain stem, medulla, and thalamus.
5. One may consider that consciousness is the part of yourself that contains your private thoughts and feelings. Developmental psychologists refer to this as theory
of mind, which emerges around four years old, but younger in some children.