Quantitative Methods Essay

758 words - 4 pages

This essay will present descriptive and inferential statistics with graphical displays generated via a computer-based secondary analysis and with regard to social class and ethnicity differences in age at having a first child. The data used in this study is gathered from the General Household Survey (GHS) 2002. GHS is annually carried out by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) in order to collect data regarding family and personal information from people who live in private households in Great Britain. The collected data is utilized for policy-making.

Looking first at a set of frequencies for an ordinal variable labelled ‘New Social Class’ which are divided by six classes (see Table 1). Getting rid of missing data, the main categories are ‘II: Intermediate occupation’ and ‘III: Skilled occupation’, which contains almost three of fourth (73.0%). The highest and lowest grade of social class account for approximately 5%, respectively.

According to the Table 2, the age at when mother had her first child averages 24.3 years old and the minimum and maximum are 14 and 49 years old, respectively. The standard deviation of 5.0 indicates that the average age at mother’s first giving birth is 5 years above or below the mean of 24.3. In terms of skewness which shows the distribution of the data (Buckingham and Saunders, 2004), the skew statistic is positive but small so that the distribution is slightly asymmetric and the median is smaller than the mean. Besides, sampling error is unlikely to be a problem because the skew statistic is larger than twice its standard error which covers more than 95 per cent of sample (0.574 > 0.160 = 2 x 0.080).

Turning to the cross-tabulation of new social class by ethnicity, The Table 3 represents that new social class is partly ethnic with less percentage of white in class I and IV (4.7% compared to 9.1% and 15.7% compared to 21.5%, respectively) and more proportion of white in class V (6.0% compared to 3.8%). In contrast, the rate of ethnic group is mostly similar in class II and III, although the number of white is much more than that of non-white..

With regard to the comparison of the means of interval-level variable labelled ‘Age of...

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