One of the first questions that comes to mind for the viability of quantum computing “Why do we need it?”. Well to understand the why we have to delve into “How does it work? And does this work give us a benefit well beyond our current capabilities with classical supercomputers.
To answer these questions we have to know “Why classical computing will not fit our needs in to the future and why can we not improve upon it?”. Classical computers are running low on time according to Moores Law which states that technology will double speed every two years. By this calculation we will be at an atom level by around 2025 at that space, researchers speculate we won't get past 5nm due to thermodynamics, atom property issues, and real estate on any architecture at that size. These issues leave a viable path for technology to follow in the next decade ,but after that period is where quantum computing needs to step in.
A Classical Computer can be put into simple terms to just how it processes and solves information and problems it is give. Classical Computing uses a bit which can be either a high or low, 1 or 0. With this type of type of information processing a complex problem could be quite cumbersome. For example something as simple as adding 2 + 2 in an Single Second Add Counter would have to count in single bits from 0,1,2,3,4.That process would take a total of 4 seconds to reach the conclusion of the process. For end-user, general populace, needs this is fine ,but for processes for looking for a cure for cancer, weather models for tornadoes and hurricanes ,or analyzing data for string theory would take months to process the information. This is why researchers, physicists, and engineers are currently working towards quantum computing to significantly speed up these times to more manageable levels.
Now, quantum computing is still a bit of a mystery to the computing community as a whole due to the fact that classical computers either cannot in general simulate a quantum system efficiently ,or just aren't powerful enough to do so yet. The exploration in this space that is currently on going involves actual testing on physically and a theoretical level to come up with more mature algorithms to learn more about this newer technology being developed.
Quantum computing works with those same two bits we previously went over ,but in a radically different way. Instead of a 0 or 1 quantum computing combines them as a qubit to be both a 0 and 1. Going back to our Single Second Add Counter we can see how this would vastly improve our processing. Now having qubits find the outcome it's no longer 0,1,2,3,4 it will be 01,23,4. This would be complete the entirity of the process in 2.5 seconds comparatively to 5 seconds in a classical computer to complete the calculation ,and that's only with a simple problem. Imagine the possibilities because as the problems scale classical computing takes longer and longer to calculate because of the many variables involved in the...