In the third century AD, the Roman Empire was thrown into chaos through several civil wars due to a lust for power; many people were only interested in how influential they were, rather than acting for the benefit of the country. Since the Roman Empire was constantly expanding and becoming more powerful, Diocletian, the emperor at the time, deemed it to be too big to be ruled by only one emperor. The Empire was split into two parts, the Eastern Roman Empire and the Western Roman Empire. The Western Roman Empire didn’t last long; it fell during the 5th century AD when it was conquered by the barbarians. The Eastern Empire lasted a thousand years before it finally fell at the hands of the Turkish.
The Western Roman Empire was constantly in chaos and could not firmly establish an undisputed government. When it fell, in 476 AD, the civilization had no central government to act as a backbone. It was ruled by the Pope, who appointed Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, as emperor in 800 AD. This event led to the transformation of the civilization into the Holy Roman Empire. This lasted until 1806, when Napoleon destroyed the Empire.
Unlike the Western Roman Empire, the Eastern Roman Empire was strong, successful, and built to last. Its capital city was Constantinople, now Istanbul, which ran along the Strait of Bosporus. The city was very powerful, and was protected by the Golden Horn to the north, the Strait of Bosporus to the east, the Sea of Marmara to the south, and the Walls of Constantinople to the west. The Eastern Roman Empire was ruled by an emperor, beginning with Constantine I and ending with Constantine XI. The Empire was Christian-based, although many people, including the emperor, did not support Christianity.
Although the emperor did not follow Christianity, he tolerated Christians as long as they worshipped the Roman pagan gods alongside Jesus. Over time, however, more and more Christians refused to...