Most bread is made with wheat flour and when this flour is either kneaded or beaten, gluten starts to develop. This gives the dough its elasticity and its stretchy consistency. When the gluten proteins are coated with water high molecular weight glycoprotein weakened due to the cutting action of kneading and mixing and they are rearranged into layers to form gluten.
The two main proteins involved in the gluten making process are gliadin and glutenin. When starches are heated in water, they suck up the water and swell. They eventually bust and the water that was incased inside the granule comes out and forms a thick gel, this is called gelatinsiatation. This is not very common in bread as not much water is used, so most granules don’t bust but are incased with water. All of these starch granules are all linked and the gluten’s job is to break down and release water, which is absorbed by the starch granules. This in turn makes the gluten “set” and become stiff, which is why bread doesn’t fold when taken out of the oven.
Water’s main purpose is to hydrate the other ingredients. Water “feeds” the starch proteins as stated above which starts the forming of dough. Water is also dispersed evenly throughout the dough and since yeast needs moisture to work its magic water aids in this process.
Yeast has a couple of functions in the bread making process. The first is that the dough starts to expand due to the yeast and therefore produces the bread’s crumb. Secondly, yeast produces carbon dioxide which allows the dough to start rising and lastly it gives bread its infamous smell and taste. All three of these functions can only happen when yeast has food, moisture and a warm environment to grow in.
Salts function in the bread making process is that it supports the gluten strands and helps in the fermentation process to give bread its size and texture. It also tends to have a fortifying affect on gluten that can change the elasticity and flexibility. Salt also tends to take away moisture from the yeast, which stunts the growing process and kills the yeast cells. Also, since salt constricts the structure of the gluten it is usually added a couple of minutes before the mixing process ends.
Butter is a type of fat and when added to bread dough, it is recommended to add them after the gluten has had a chance to develop. The reason for this is that it slows...