Socialization Essay

1959 words - 8 pages

Overweight and obesity, an excessive accumulation of body fat, is one of the major public health challenge in the 21st century, affecting one in every six people worldwide (World Health Organization, 2013a). According to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimation, globally over 42 million children under the age of five were overweight in 2010 (WHO, 2011). A recent study estimated that the worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschool children aged 2-5 years increased from 4.2% to 6.7% within two decades and is expected to reach 12.7% by 2020 (de Onis et al., 2010). The results of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that in the United State (US) ...view middle of the document...

On 9th February 2010, First Lady Michelle Obama unveiled a campaign based on the multi-factorial approach with a major focus on empowering local stakeholders such as parents, consumers, etc. Similarly, childhood obesity prevention programme ‘Ensemble Prévenons l'ObésitéDes Enfants’ (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) was launched in France in 2004 with the multi-factorial approach. Borys et al. (2012) conducted an early evaluation of EPODE that found childhood obesity was no longer increasing at the national level expect in disadvantaged areas. A White paper of Commission of the European Communities (2007) suggests that its critical part that includes political commitment, resources, support service, and evidence not only involve multiple stakeholders at a central level but also at a local level.

Wojcicki and Heyman (2010) point out that the ‘Let’s Move!’ campaign changed the country’s approach to eating, nutrition, and physical activity by simultaneously targeting people, neighbourhoods, and larger communities. The settings-based approach to health promotion involves both holistic and multi-disciplinary method, which integrates action across risk factors, and its key principles include community participation, partnership, empowerment, and equity (WHO, 2013b). ‘Let’s Move!’ campaign had been implementing setting-based approach in multiple settings such as schools, cities, communities, and health facilities. For instance, ‘Chefs Move to Schools’, an initiative that encourage chefs to sign up as volunteers in schools and then partner with teachers, parents, school nutritionists, food directors, and administrators to build a healthy school (Obama, 2013). Recent comparative effectiveness review and meta-analysis concluded that childhood obesity prevention in school-based setting with family, home, and community components have the most evidence for effectiveness (Wang et al., 2013).

An empowerment model used in the campaign not only strengthens capacities for obesity related preventive actions, but also make a major contribution to set up healthy public policy, for instance, to pass Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 to law on 13 December 2010. The development and implementation of such act is significant to create a health-promoting environment influences. Green and Tones (2010) argue that the two major action strategies in the model, one advocacy and another creating enough level of public pressure, is vital for producing a significant result. The Health Evidence Network synthesis report (2006) on the effectiveness of an empowerment model concluded that the model is a practical public health strategy that has a consistency of empowerment strategies, and outcomes, at the psychological, organizational, and community levels, and across populations. Nevertheless, Naidoo and Wills (1998) comment that empowerment is a difficult concept to measure, involving subjective assessments of change in personal autonomy, self-esteem and...

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