Sports Psychology Essay

5361 words - 21 pages

Sports psychology.Introduction.For this assignment I am going to:·Recognise individual differences in terms of behaviour and sport performance.·Demonstrate an understanding of the psychological and physiological mechanisms of information processing.·Differentiate between learning theories and their application to teaching and coaching.·Identify the role of group dynamics within sport.For these tasks I am going to use the sport of football and the skill of kicking a ball to answer the questions.Task 1.The central nervous system is where all the sensory information is sent and where reflexes and actions are coordinated. It consists of the brain and spinal cord only. Neurons (nerve cells) transmit electrical impulses very quickly around the body. The effectors are muscles and glands, which respond to the various stimuli according to the instructions from the central nervous system. The peripheral nervous system sends the brain signals to produce a movement. The structure is very important to the function because it helps detect any stimuli around the body.There are five sense organs that detect various stimuli, they are:1.Eyes - light receptors.2.Ears - sound and balance receptors.3.Nose - taste and smell receptors (chemical stimuli).4.Tongue - taste receptors (chemical stimuli).5.Skin - touch, pressure and temperature stimuli.This system is adapted to allow movement and control of the body. It is responsible for reaction time as the sensors tell the brain that something is happening. The electrical impulses are designed to travel to the effecter as quickly as possible to make a fast response. For example when your playing football and you see the football on the ground ready to be kicked the eye sensor tells the brain the position, distance and speed of the ball so the body can react and kick it, The body goes through various stages to get a reaction as sown in fig 1.When coaching my skill I have to consider the different aspects that help people to learn the skill most effectively. By using information processing models I can show how I will coach the skill and the steps that must be taken.Information processing.Information processing is an approach, which sees the development of a human motor behaviour (motor learning) as a process rather than a specific stimulus.Models are intended to aid understanding by helping teachers/coaches in their task analysis.Fig 2 shows the simplest model of information processing. It shows a cycle that the body must go through to achieve an output.ØFirstly an input is given to the body via a sensory gland such as the eyes.ØThen an impulse is sent to the central or decision-making process such as the brain.ØThen the brain sends an impulse to the muscles to give an output.ØThen feedback is used so the output can be improved.Example of this in football:Kicking the football can be show as this model in fig 3.ØPlayer sees the ball on the floor ready to be...

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