The year 1968 marks the revolution of computers as Engelbart demonstrated to the public a new type of computer that featured graphical user interface (GUI) (page 105-106). After the demonstration, Engelbart and Xerox PARC designed and created the first commercialized computer with GUI (Xerox Alto) and other advanced features that included word processing, an operation system, programs that are easy to use, and etcetera (p. 119). The Xerox Alto had the potential to create a sensation in the 1970s, but the hefty price on the finalized product was too much for its time (page 120). After a short period of time, the product became a failure due to poor marketing with its astonishing high price. Nevertheless, Xerox PARC left a legacy that helped created a device that made Apple famous in the 1980s.
Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak (Woz) are the two geniuses of their time. They created the Apple Company in the 1970s, and when these two combined their knowledge of computing, they invented the world first low-cost computer in 1977, the Apple II. Not only these computers are affordable, they were user friendly, and they had a useful program called VisiCalc (the world first spreadsheet that is useful for business people). These computers sold millions (page 138-139). After the success with Apple II, the two Steves work together with Xerox PARC. With the collaboration Apple and Xerox, they invented the Macintosh. Unlike its precedent, the Apple II, the Macintosh it had a revolutionary GUI and it was portable (the monitor and the computer unit is combined). Also, these computers were much easier to use due to the GUI, in which it allows the people to click and use the computer without learning complex commands (page 157-158). Sadly, the Apple Company fell apart in the 1980s and it would not recover until the 2000s. During this time gap, Microsoft slowly took over the computer industry.
Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak may have dominated the market for their hardware in the 1970s and the 1980s, but Bill Gates dominated the software industry during these times. Beside from the BASIC programs that Gates created in the 1970s, Gates is more known for his operation system called MS-DOS in the 1980s and the 1990s. While Apple has the Mac operation system for their personal computers, Microsoft has the operation system called DOS that ran on every International Business Machine Corporation (IBM) and PC clone in the world. In time, Microsoft took VisiCalc’s spreadsheet and invented their own program called Multiplan, and later they made the Microsoft Word in 1983 (page 154-156). Apple and Microsoft might have competed in the computer industry in 1980s, but after 1990s, the tides changed toward Microsoft favor.
Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau created the connections that we all have today. They created the world first web server in 1990 called World Wide Web (page 164). Lee (the better known) is not the first person who invented the network and the internet (Advanced...