Which Comprehension Strategies Are Most Effective?

2065 words - 9 pages

What is reading comprehension? Comprehension is the “process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with the written language” (Snow, 2002, p.11). Knowing different reading strategies is a great way for students work on building their comprehension skills. “Comprehension strategies are conscious, deliberate, and flexible plans readers use and adjust with a variety of texts to accomplish specific goals.” (Dole, Duffy, Roehler, & Pearson, 1991; Lenski & Nierstheimer, 2002). Strategies are cognitive tools that can be used to help break comprehension; using such strategies can improve a student’s academic performance immensely. Providing students with different comprehension strategies is critical for struggling readers, because they are unlikely to discover these strategies on their own.
Literature Review
In the 1970s and 1980s, comprehension strategy instruction became the center of most research. What the research had discovered was that good readers apply comprehension strategies with almost every reading task, where poor readers use fewer strategies. A great point is that “comprehension strategies can be taught, and strategy instruction will lead to improved comprehension for all students” (Block and Pressley, 2003; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 200; Paris et al., 1991). The main goal of strategy instruction is to create self-regulated learners who can take their learned comprehension strategies and generalize it to other contexts. Self-regulated learners are capable of choosing different strategies that help them reach their goal. If that student sees the strategy to be ineffective, the student will automatically choose a different strategy. Furthermore, students need to have more than one comprehension strategy that they are fluent with to ensure they have options if one strategy is ineffective. Students are expected “to apply the learned strategy across conditions, settings, tasks, and contexts. Also known as transference, generalization means that students can apply the learned strategy in reading new and unfamiliar texts and situations.” (Pilonieta, 2010) According to Harris and Pressley (1991) generalization is most likely to occur when students are taught the different circumstances in which a strategy can be used and when students are presented with a lot of opportunities to practice the strategy with a wide range of materials and settings.
Explicit instruction of comprehension strategies is ideal, rather than instruction where students are expected to assume the lesson’s goals. It has been suggested that teachers should provide instructional cues to alert students of what will be learned during the guided practice. During strategy instruction, the types of cues that the teacher will provide should be guided. According to a study done by Paris et al. (1983) knowing the difference between declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge is extremely...

Find Another Essay On which comprehension strategies are most effective?

Analyse at Least Two Recently Proposed Solutions to the Problem of E-Waste in Order to Determine Which is the Most Effective

1338 words - 5 pages question begins to appear: “What should be done to tackle this challenge of electronic waste?” One good response to this question may be recycle and reuse. Obsolete electronic devices can be reused, which means continued use of them or their components in the way they are produced for after their collection in specific centres (stated in WEEE Directive). These electronic appliances collected by the different facilities, centres, or manufacturers

The Old Nurse's Story (E. Gaskell) and The Axe (P. Fitzgerald): Of the two stories you have read, which do you think is the most effective ghost story? Which story do you prefer and why?

2139 words - 9 pages organ player, to name but a few. The end satisfactorily ties up most questions that arise.A similar enigmatic air was present in The Axe. It is bleak, even mundane, at the beginning, which contrasts greatly with the end, where the story reaches its chilling climax. Unlike The Old Nurse's Story, The Axe is very ambiguous. There are many things mentioned that seem significant at the time, but come to nothing at the end. The damp is an example of

What are the three most difficult challenges that face leader-managers, and how do effective leader-managers meet those three challenges?

3216 words - 13 pages Essay - What are the three most difficult challenges that face leader-managers, and how do effective leader-managers meet those three challenges?In the beginning there was the word: leader-managers. I will begin this essay by briefly differentiate between a leader and a manager. A manager has subordinates, meaning he has power over the people under him, while a leader has followers, people who are willing to follow and not obliged to. Huband

There are different strategies in the global marketplace. Identify them and discuss at least two in depth. Analyse examples of companies which have successfully applied them

2021 words - 8 pages business requires making choices along various strategic dimensions. Current developments of international business environment are generally referred to as results of globalization. Whether to globalize and how to do it is the one of the most important issues for managers around the world. The popular saying "think globally act locally" is not as easy as some managers think. There are many factors which push the companies towards globalization by

Compare The Birthing Scene In Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, Directed By Kenneth Branagh (1994) With The Original Version Directed By James Whale (1931). Which Do You Think Is Most Effective And Why?

1361 words - 5 pages and Victor is down on the ground. The camera swaps between high and low angle shots to communicate the shift in power. The high-angle shots make Victor appear vulnerable, while the creature is powerful looking in the low-angle shots.There are a number of religious images in "˜Mary Shelley's Frankenstein'. The laboratory where the creature is given life is in an attic, which mirrors the shape of a Cathedral. Flickering candles around the

Gender Communication, What are The most important ways in which Gender Influences Communication?

959 words - 4 pages interruptions males tend to interrupt a lot more than females.Other ways in which males can avoid these misunderstandings is to learn some of the more female or feminine speech rules. Learn to be a better listener be inquisitive, be interested and read to what she might mean by the last phrase, way it up see if has any meaning other that what it implies Males need to learn the "comfortable space between sentences of conversation.Males are not the only one

Literature review:Reading Comprehension

1197 words - 5 pages ) Thousands of dollars each year are spent on intervention, trying to improve the reading of children that show delays. When one reads, the clear goal is comprehension of what is read. Without communication of ideas between the author and reader, decoding texts is pointless. Most intervention programs are focused on phonics and word decoding. Oral language interventions concurrent with vocabulary and comprehension tasks at age eight have been shown

Addressing Challenges on Acquisition of Reading Comprehension to Second Language English Speakers

1818 words - 8 pages comprehension. We are very aware that in our schools we get diverse learners who teachers need to be trained for to cater for those students. The most of the learners in the school are multilingual; well it is my job as a caring teacher to adapt your lessons and curriculum for those students. Almost all of the learners that are in our schools, do not have English as Home language, you find that English is a third or fourth language. We need to

my paper

1587 words - 7 pages strategies, fluency, illustrations, and second language. On all the articles I read on The Simple View of Reading for this paper I showed that reading comprehension abilities are dependent on decoding skills and on language comprehension abilities for the most part and that these categories can be taught and assessed separately. The Simple View of Reading is a way to determine if students are reading at the level the should be and to make sure they

Literacy Reform

1029 words - 5 pages . Based on these findings, I am interested in researching the effects of background knowledge on reading comprehension levels and the best methods in which students should be taught to increase comprehension of text. If students are to succeed with 21st century reading skills and be productive members of their communities, they must be able to find meaning in the material they have read (Beach and Baker, 2011). Balanced Literacy Having a concise

Instructional Unit Analysis: Improving Students' Reading Comprehension

1530 words - 6 pages reading is the most important thing that a student can learn in school. I chose reading comprehension because I see students struggling with it every day. It doesn’t matter if the student is an above grade level reader, on grade level reader, or below grade level reader, all students struggle with different parts of reading comprehension. I believe that if they are taught strategies, it will help them improve their reading. Why It Is

Similar Essays

What Are The Most Effective Heart Disease Prevention, Onset And Intervention Methods

3543 words - 14 pages by a variety of biological, psychological, and social influences. A healthier lifestyle is linked to a longer lifespan and better quality of life for an individual, so in order to promote a healthier lifestyle the dangers and risks of everyday life must be recognizable and approachable. Current questions I want to answer is; What is the most effective heart disease prevention, onset, and intervention methods? Looking through the biopsychosocial

Good Vs. Bad Fat: Which One Are You Eating The Most?

1723 words - 7 pages However, there is also a solid base of research suggesting that specific fats actually can protect against disease. The highest quality of fat is naturally present in fresh nuts, seeds, soybeans, avocados, olives, and other plant food (Carlson 38). Most vegetables contain unsaturated fats and actually are good for people’s health. Not all fat is bad fat. Nut is a good example. Studies show those people who eating nuts most frequency had a 50

Which Of Nietzsche's Ideas Are The Most Useful For Feminist Theory And Practice?

3205 words - 13 pages This paper will examine which of Nietzsche's ideas are the most useful for feminist theory and practice. I intend to discuss the exclusion of women throughout the history of philosophy, demonstrating how this can be useful for feminist theory. I will talk about Nietzsche's use of dualisms and how his anti-essentialist ideas can be useful with also taking a look at Jacques Derrida's ideas. Lastly I will discuss Nietzsche's ideas about language

Assessing The View That Practical Issues Are The Most Important Factors In Deciding Which Research Method To Use

2138 words - 9 pages Assessing the View that Practical Issues are the Most Important Factors in Deciding Which Research Method to Use In sociology, sociologists will often have to do research into certain topics to gain a deeper understanding of them. There are many methods of research that a researcher could use if they were researching into society, such as observation, questionnaires, surveys, or interviews. When choosing between these